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It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyze the sequence of events.Why study Philippine History?: Why study Philippine History? The study of Philippine history is important in understanding the present . To know the significance of why our heroes fight for the freedom against the dominant foreigners To know what is the values and aspects our ancestors have tried to protect To learn from the past in the decision making of today’s leaders As Filipinos, we should love and know our country as well, studying history is the story of our country and its peopleEnvironment and Asian Heritage: Environment and Asian HeritagePhysical Environment: Physical Environment Our country is Philippines, our native land It is 1 of more than 180 countries worldwide Its citizenry are called FilipinosGod, land, and people: God, land, and people God God loves Filipinos and put them in a rich and beautiful land God gave the “gift of faith” to Filipinos to know and serve him. God has helped Filipinos in many times from all natural calamities and social troublesPowerPoint Presentation: People Men, women, and children who make up the Filipino nation are very fortunate Only Filipinos have the most knowledge of God’s Word and His Son Jesus Christ compared to Asian, African, and Middle Eastern nations Only Filipinos have rich and unique cultural heritage of Asian, Latin, European, and American influences No other nation in the world has this rich in cultural heritagePowerPoint Presentation: We are bridge between the East and West We are the only Christian nation in AsiaPowerPoint Presentation: Land We have the most beautiful and richest lands in the world Philippines is rich in natural resources like oil, gas, mineral, farmlands, and forests Visitors come to see the scenic spots in the countryWhy Philippines: Why Philippines When Filipinos were not yet united as nation, we were separated into clans and tribes People lived in areas of their own namesPowerPoint Presentation: Early Chinese traders who visited Mindoro called our nation Ma- yi which means land of gold A greek mapmaker named Claudius Ptolemy called our islands Maniolas in his ancient map When Magellan came in 1521, he called the Philippines “Archipelago of St. Lazarus” In 1543, a Spanish explorer Ruy Lopez de Villalobos gave the name Felipinas in honor to Crown prince Felipe (Philip) who later became King Philip II of SpainPowerPoint Presentation: The Felipinas later became Filipinas during the Spanish colonial era, then it became the Philippine Islands during the American colonial era , then the Republic of the Philippines after our Independence in 1946PowerPoint Presentation: The most popular nickname for the Philippines is Pearl of the Orient Seas by a S panish missionary-historian Fr. Juan Delgado in 1751 and was popularized by Dr. Jose Rizal, our National Hero in 1892Location: Location The Philippines lies in southeast Asia, a little above the Equator Bounded in the east by the Pacific Ocean, in the west by the South China Sea, in the north b the Bashi Channel, and in the south by the Zulu and Celebes sea The northernmost island is Y’ Ami, only 240 km from Taiwan The southernmost island in Saluag Isle, about 24 km from Sabah (north Borneo)Area: Area The Philippine area includes islands, adjacent seas, and submarine areas and the airspace above Total land area is 300, 780 sqm or 0.2% of the world’s land mass It is bigger than that of UK, almost as large as Italy and slightly smaller than Japan With 7, 107 island, one of the world’s largest archipelagosPowerPoint Presentation: Only 2, 773 island have names and 1, 190 are inhabited Luzon is the biggest island group (141, 395sqm) Mindanao is second (101, 999 sqm ) Visayas is third (56, 606 sqm )11 Main Islands: 11 Main Islands Luzon (104, 687 sqm ) Mindanao (94, 630sqm) Samar (13,080sqm) Negros (12,709sqm) Palawan (11, 785 sqm ) Panay (11,515 sqm ) Mindoro (9, 735 sqm ) Leyte (7,214sqm) Cebu (4, 422sqm) Bohol (3, 864sqm) Masbate (3, 269s sqm )PowerPoint Presentation: Recently, the area has been increased with the addition of Spratly island (Presidential Decree no. 1596 of President Marcos, June 11, 1978) Spratly is under the province of Palawan (which is claimed also by Malaysia, Vietnam, and china)Topography: Topography Means the physical feature of the country It is an inverted Y shaped archipelago of numerous islands and islets, coral reefs, rivers, lakes, and bays, mountains and valleys, cool plateaus, and scenic volcanoes Philippines has the longest discontinuous coastline in the world- 34, 600 km It has 61 natural harbors and 20 landlocked straits Manila Bay is the finest harbor in Asia and the largest bay in the countryPowerPoint Presentation: Other famous bays: Balayan Bay ( Batangas ) Tayabas Bay (Quezon) Ormoc Bay (Leyte) Taytay Bay (Palawan) Sindangan Bay, Illana Bay and Sarangani Bay in MindanaoPowerPoint Presentation: Famous gulfs: Lingayen gulf Leyte gulf Davao gulfPowerPoint Presentation: Narrowest strait in the world is the San Juanico Strait between Samar and Leyte, now connected by San Juanico Bridge Great peninsulas: Historic Bataan Peninsula Fertile Bicol Peninsula in Luzon Zamboanga and Davao Peninsula in MindanaoPowerPoint Presentation: Philippine Deep is the lowest place in the country, some 89 km Northeast of Mindanao With a depth of 37, 732 feet below sea level It is said to be the deepest place in the world The tallest mountain in the world , Mount Everest is the (29, 028 feet high), can easily submerged in it with over 8,000 feet to sparePowerPoint Presentation: Mountains and valleys 7 major mountain ranges: Sierra Mountain range (the longest) from Cagayan province in the North to Laguna in the south Mt. apo , the highest mountain in the country (9, 690 feet or 2, 954 meter above sea level) Mt. Pulog , the second highest peak on the Ifugao-Benguet boundary in Luzon (2, 982 meters) Mt. Banahaw in Laguna- Quezon Mt. Bulusan in Sorsogon Mt. Halcon in Mindoro Orriental Mt. Kanlaon in Negros Occidental Mt. Matutum in CotabatoPowerPoint Presentation: 4 major lowland plains: Central Plain ( luzon )- the rice granary of the Philippines Cagayan Valley (Luzon)- greatest tobacco-producing region in Asia and is also the largest Agusan Valley (Mindanao) Cotabato Valley (Mindanao)PowerPoint Presentation: Famous plateus : Benguet plateu in Northern Luzon (the summer capital of the Philipines , Baguio “city of pines”) Fertile Bukidnon Plateu in Mindanao (famous for pineapple)PowerPoint Presentation: 132 main rivers Cagayan River (longest), its annual flood fertilizes the Cagayan Valley as the Nile River in Egypt Rio Grande of Mindanao (the largest river in water volume) Pasig river (most historic) bad is now badly polluted and is gradually dyingPowerPoint Presentation: 59 natural lakes Laguna de bay, the largest, which was the source of Jose Rizal and other literary talents, and source of livelihood for nearby fishing communitiesPowerPoint Presentation: Springs Valuable for medicinal waters and for geothermal power Los banos and pansol in Laguna Pandi and sibul in Bulacan Tiwi in Albay Magsingal in Ilocos surPowerPoint Presentation: Waterfalls Provide tourist attractions and hydroelectric power Pagsanjan falls in Laguna- favorite tourist resort and movie location Maria Cristina in Lanao del Norte Hinulugang Taktak in Antipolo Tamaraw Fallas in Mindoro Orriental Darosdos Falls in SmaarThe World’s Greatest Biodiversity: The World’s Greatest Biodiversity We have the richest and most numerous species of plants and animalsPlant: Plant 8,120 plant species grow in the country Orchids alone has 1,000 varieties Rice has 1,000 species Numerous flowers of various colors, not to mention the “Queen of Philippine flowers”, the Sampaguita Grapes of various species are being cultivated in the countryAnimal Life: Animal Life About 850 species of birds are found in the country more than Australia, Japan, and other Asian countries The biggest bird Eastern Sarus Crane known as tipol in Luzon and labong in Visayas is in the country, a wading bird with very long legs and necks The world’s largest eagle is in the country, which is the Philippine or money eating eagle known as the National Bird The kalaw , the clock of the mountains is in the country The most useful animal, which is carabaois in the country considered as the farmers’ bestfriendPowerPoint Presentation: The smallest monkey in the world is in Bohol which is the tarsier The smallest deer in the world ‘the mouse deer of Balabac Island is in PalawanForest Resources: Forest Resources The forest lands have a total area of 16, 633,000 hectares, representing 55% of the total land area In Asia, Philippines ranks 3 rd in forest reserves,Indonesia being first and Japan as the second More than 3,000 species of trees are found in our forests The most famous is narra , the queen of Philippine woodFish and marine resources: Fish and marine resources There are many fishing grounds in the archipelago which include the Lingayen gulf, Manila Bay, Lamon Bay, Ragay Gulf and the Tayabas Bay in Luzon; Samar Sea Carigara Bay, Sibuyan Sea, Guimaras Strait, Camotes sea, Iloilo Strait, Panay Gulf, and Bohol strait in the Visayas ; Malampaya sound, Coron Bay, Taytay Bay, Cuyo Pass,a nd Imuran Bay in Palawan, and Mindanao Sea, Gingoog Bay, Illana Bay, and Moro Gulf in MindanaoPowerPoint Presentation: At least 2,000 species of fish are found in the Philippine waters Both the largest ( whale shark or the pating bulik ) and smallest fish (pygmy globy fish or the Pandaka Pygmaea which is about the size of a rice grain and tabios ) in the world is in the archipelago We are also yielded with marine products such as shells, shellfish, sponges, coals, seaweed, and pearlsPowerPoint Presentation: 20,000 of the 60,000 shell species in the world are in the Philippines The world’s largest pearl is in the Philippines , the Pearl of Allah Many minerals are found in the country such as nickel, copper, iron, gold, etc. Philippines is one of Asia’s great gold producing region Gold and copper mining are among the ancient industry for Filipino people The greatest iron-bearing areas in the country are the two Surigao provinces, the biggest in the world Vast nickel deposit was discovered in Nonoc Island, Surigao del Norte, one of the world’s largest in AsiaEnergy sources: Energy sources The philippines’ energy is supplies by oil, hydroelectric power, bagasse ( surgarcane wastes), geothermal, coal, new sources of energy like solar power, biogas, agro-forestry wastes, natural gas, alcogas , and wood The discovery of more oil and gas in Malampaya , Palawan is the biggest oil and gas field in the countryScenic beauties and natural wonders: Scenic beauties and natural wonders Banaue rice terraces- built more than 2,000 years ago sing the bare hands and crude stone tools of the Ifugaos Mount Mayon - the crowning glory of Philippine natural wonders Manila bay sunset is another enchanting wonder of the country called as the “most beatiful sunset in the world” Pagsanjan Falls and Gorge, the inland Sampalok lake of San pablo city and the hidden Valey of Alaminos in laguna , the amazing Umbrella Geyser of Barrio Bigaa , San Juan, the petite Taal Volcano 9smallest and lowest volcano in the world, the hundred islands in pangasinan , the Chocolate Hills, the magnificnet Ma. Cristina Falls, the underground river in Palawan are among the beautiful sights in the landSocial Environment: Social Environment Social environment means people and their character and culture including the racial ancestry, the population growth, the religion, customs, language, arts and sciences, government, and economyPowerPoint Presentation: Filipinos are a great nation because of the following: We are a unique with a cultural heritage from the major civilizations in the world: Asian, European, Latin American, and North American We are a nation with a gift of faith and a gift of music (Filipinos are very spiritual and deeply religious, also our music is more romantic and melodious than other countries) We are the first republic in Asia (the first Philippine Republic was founded by Aguinaldo in 18989), other countries in Asia were only kingdoms, colonies, or non existentPowerPoint Presentation: We received training in self-government and democracy ahead of the other Asian nations, with the Philippine Commonwealth came into being in 1935 under President Quezon We led Asian world in building schools, universities, roads, and bridges, town planning, public health system, hosptials , orphanages, telephones and other Western-style technology We are the largest English speaking nation in Asia, other Asian countries do not speak English and do not feel comfortable with foreignerspopulation: population In 2002, the population was 82, 841, 516 The population grows more than the national wealth, the nation has become poorer The urgent economic problems are developing and protecting natural resources and controlling population growthSocial classes: Social classes There are 3 social classes based on income and hsare of the national wealth Rich (oligarchs) represent 10% of the population but own 90% of the wealth Middle class represent 20% of the population who are professionals, they are the backbone of the nation Lower income groups and the poor masses represent 70% of the population but only earn or share 10% of the wealthReligion: Religion Philippines is the only Christian nation in Asia About 93% are christians , 83% are Cathlics , 7.6% are Aglipayans , 2.35 are protestants, and other sects Catholicism was Spain’s greatest leagcy to the philippines Protestant sects (Episcopalian, baptist , methodist , SDA are among the American’s introduced sectPowerPoint Presentation: The Aglipay church of the Philippine Independent Church is a unique Filipino Protestant founded by Isabelo delos Reyes in 1902 with Gregorio Aglipay as its first Bishop. Today, it has 1.43 million adherents Iglesia ni Kristo , founded by Feliz Manalo in 1914, is a Philippine sect with members both in the country and abroad. It has 475,000 members Islam with 1.6 million followers is the country’s second largest religion Pagan religions followed by tribal minorities (ancestor & nature worship) account a very small minority of the reglion (0.03%)PowerPoint Presentation: Buddhism (0.002%) and Shintoism (0.008%) are followed by Chinese and Japanese communitieslanguage: language Philippines is a nation of many languages There are 55 native languages and 142 local dialects according to a survey by Richard Pitman, an American linguist Cebuano ranks 1 st of the 8 principal native languages, it is the mother tongue of ¼ of the people (24.39%) Tagalog is now a close second (23.82%), followed by Ilocano (11.14%), Hiligaynon or Ilonggo (9.99%), Bicolano (6.96%), Waray-waray (4.62%), Kapampangan (3.43%, and Pangasinan (2.26%) English is the most widely used language in the country especially used for education, commerce, and the profession Philippines is the 3 rd largest English speaking country in the worldPowerPoint Presentation: In 1935, President Manuel L. Quezon, the father of the National Language The 1987 Constitution provided that the national language is Filipino with Tagalog as the basis of the national languageEducation and high literacy: Education and high literacy Filipinos are fond of education The american Governor-General of the Philippines Frank Murphy said “No people ever accepted the blessings of education with more enthusiasm than the Filipinos” A college diploma is a status of symbol in the country Filipino & English are the medium of instruction from Elementary to Highschool English is the medium of instruction in colleges and universities There are more than 50 universities in the PhilippinesPowerPoint Presentation: The University of Santo Tomas in Manila was the oldest (1611), it is 25 years older than the Harvard University, the oldest university in the United States Literacy rate for the Philippines is 89.9%, the highest among Southeast Asian countriesAsia’s citadel of democracy: Asia’s citadel of democracy Filipino patriots since Spanish times have sacrificed their fortunes and their lives in defense of democracy Thousands of Filipinos fought and died in Bataan, Corregidor, Mauban , and other battlefield during the World War II in defense of freedom and democracy against the Japanese invaders As early as Philippine revolution (1896-1902), democracy was already the people’s cherished idealFilipino character: Filipino character Filipinos has many good qualities than bad traits We love fiestas, parties, expensive clothes, and jewels for which we spend for money Filipinos are prone to gamblling and betting- cockfighting, horse races, jai-alai-mahjong, and card games– gambling is a national vice Fatalism is another bad trait- Filipinos believe that what happen to them depends on fate. They say “ Bahala na ”PowerPoint Presentation: Filipinos are sensitive about their honor and reputation Filipinos prefer smooth relations with their relatives, friends, and colleagues even when others are corrupt, or dishonest. This is called “ pakisama ” which often leads to nepotism, influence peddling, or cheating Filipinos unlike the Chinese or the Japanese lack of discipline. They are usually easy going and will not work well without strict supervisionPowerPoint Presentation: Filipinos lack perseverance– they begin a task with enthusiasm but quickly lose interest in the job. This is called “ ningas cogon” Filipinos have the bad habit of putting aside the work which can be done right away and doing it the following day “ manana habit,”which is inherited from the Spaniards Some good traits are: Filipinos are intelligent, with retentive memory, quick perception, and talents for arts and science are very high. Filipinos are also gentle, friendly, and cheerful, noted for courtesy and hospitalityPowerPoint Presentation: Filipinos are noted for ‘close family ties” Filipinos are passionately romantic Filipinos are liberty-loving and brave people. They valiantly resisted the Spanish, American, and Japanese invaders The Filipino courage is proven during the Battle of Mactan (1521), the Battle of Tirad Pass (1899), the Battle of Bataan,corregidor , and Bessang Pass during the World War II Gratitude is another sterling strait of the Filipinos. They are grateful to those who have granted them favors (‘ utang na loob ”)PowerPoint Presentation: Filipinos are cooperative ( bayanihan ) Filipinos are noted for their durability and resilliencyRegional Traits: Regional Traits Ilocanos of Ilocandia are the most adventurous, hardworking,and frugal of Filipinos Tagalogs feel superior to other Filipinos because they live in a region blessed with rich farm lands,navigable rivers, and panoramic beauties & because of their participation to history Bicolanos are a religious , mild tempered, and musical people Bisayas particularly from Iloilo and Negros Occidental are extravagant, carefree and jolly The Muslim Filipinos are fierce, valiant warriorsCultural minorities : Cultural minorities Of the 52 million Filipinos, 1.6 million belong to the cultural minorities Northern tribes are the Ifugaos , the Bontocs , the Kankanays , the Ibaloys , the Tinguians , the Kalingas , the Gaddangs , and the Negritoes . Some tribes worship nature and their ancestors Mindoro tribes comprise the Mangyans , a peace loving, musical people Mindanao: Maranao , Ilanum , Tausug , Samal , Badjao , Yakan , Subanon , Bukidnon , Mansaka , Higaunon , Kalagan , Mandaya , Bagobo , Tiruray , Manobo, Blaan , Manubo Blit , and Ubo tribes The Badjao and Samals are primitive fishermen and often live in boatsFilipino women: Filipino women Women in the Philippines occupy a high place in the society, enjoy equal social and political rights with men unlike in other Asian countries The first lady President of the philippines is Corazon AquinoThe arts: The arts Filipinos are creative people & have produced outstanding artists- writers, painters, sculptors, musicians, etc Since 1972, many Filipinos have received the National Artist Award: Juan Nakpil & Pablo Antonio for Architecture Amado Hernandez, Jose Garcia Villa, Nick Joaquin, & Carlos Romulo for Literature Fernando Amorsolo , Carlos Francisco, & Victorio Edades for Painting Guillermo Tolentino & Napoleon Abueva for Sculpture Lamberto Avellana , Gerardo de Leon for Film Antonio Molina, Jovita Fuentes for MusicScience & Technology: Science & Technology Filipino scientists are trying to find alternative technology appropriate to Philippine condition The Department of Science and Technology is pushing the frontiers of the coutnry’s technological knowledge Some national scientists: Juan salcedo Jr , Fe del Mundo , Geminiano Ocampo for Medicine Alfredo Santos & Julian Banzon for Chemistry Casimiro del Rosario for Physics Gregorio Zara for Engineering Eduardo Quisumbing , Gregorio Velaszuez , and Dioscoro Umali for BotanyOur Early Ancestors: Our Early AncestorsPowerPoint Presentation: Our early ancestors can be explained in: The story of God’s creation in the Bible Evolution theory Legend and fairy talesThe Biblical Story: The Biblical Story All men and women originated from the first man (Adam) and the first woman (Eve) After the great flood, Noah and his 3 sons lefts to settle the earth Noah’s sons were Japheth, Shem, & Ham The youngest of Japheth named Javan , came four (4) sons namely: Elishah , Tharsis , the Kittim , and the Rodanim They spread into their territory with their clans within their nations each with its own languagePowerPoint Presentation: According to Fr. Francisco Colin, a Jesuit historian, the first settlers in the country was Tharsis , son of Javan and great grandson of Noah, together with his brothers and their descendants Descendants then settled in the parts of the world that we now know as Asia, including the islands of PhilippinesThe theory of evolution: The theory of evolution By study of archaeologists, scientist who study the past, man came from apelike creatures They use material relics like bones, jars, pottery, and antique jewelry to trace the past One group of scientist believe that early Filipinos came from “waves of migration”- Negritos , Indonesians, and Malays Another group of scientist believe that early Filipinos came from settlers within the islands, and in fact our ancestors migrated outside the country to the other nearby islands Both group of scientist however believe that first man in the Philippines lived in Palawan about 25,000 years ago. Palawan was then connected to the Asian mainlandPowerPoint Presentation: The first Filipino lived in caves at Tabon Palawan, thus called “ Tabon man” They belong to the stone age culture Tabon man hunted wild animas with crude stone weapons, use stone tools to make clothes or prepare food They did not know farming or raise animals They were short, with bushy eyebrows and low foreheadPowerPoint Presentation: Most of the time was spent looking for good Primitive people like the Tabon Man lived in other parts of the world called “java man” or “Beijing man”Growth of Filipinos: Growth of Filipinos Filipinos grew in number and improved their lifestyle They began to cook with fire and to make sharper tools Many llived in Central Luzon and Cagayan Valley About 5,000 years ago, the early Filipinos learned to make axes, seashell ornaments and pottery Filipinos then became experts craftsmen, travelers, and traders The early filipinos were like Vikings of the Pacific They sailed on boat across the Pacific Ocean to nearby islands in Micronesia and polynesia They live in larger villages in Manila, pampanga , Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, Cebu, and Bohol They started good business relations with the Arabs, Chinese, and other nearby nationsWaves of migration: Waves of migrationThe Negritos: The Negritos The first people to come to the Philippines were the Negritos They were called Atis or Aetas The came across land bridges from mainland Asia about 25,000 years ago They were very small people, less than 5 feet tall Negritos because they had black skin, short kinky hair, thick lips, and black noses They wore little clothing They had no government, no writing and no permanent homes They wandered in the forests and lived by hunting using bow and arrow Today, negritos are still in the hills of ZambalesThe Indonesians: The Indonesians According the migration theory, Indonesians were the first immigrants to come by sea to the Philippines They came about 5,000 years ago They sailed in boats from south Asia They drove the negritos to the mountains and lived in the lowlands There were 2 types of Indonesians: Tall, with light skin, large forehead high nose, and thin lips Shorter and darker, with a large nose, thick lips, and heavy jawPowerPoint Presentation: Indonesians were more advanced than the Negritos They lived in permanent homes They used fire to cook their food They lived by hunting, fishing, and small farming They painted their bodies with colorful figures Today, Indonesian minority tribes are found in the interior parts of the country: the Kalingas of Northern Luzon, the Tagbanuas of Palwan , the Bagobos , manobos , Mandayas , Bukidnons , Tirurays and Sabanuns of Mindanaomalays: malays Malays came after Indonesians, about 2,000 years ago They arrived in boats from Southeast Asia They were medium in height, brown-skinned, with dark eyes, flat noses, and straight black hair They drove Indonesians to the forests and they lived in the lowlands Malays were more civilized than the Indonesians They lived in larger villages They had government, writing, music, arts, and scienes They lived by agriculture, fishing, mining, and tradingPowerPoint Presentation: The Filipinos today came from the Malays brown race. Thus, there are Muslim malays in Mindanao, particularly in Jolo and also in Palawan There are also Christian Malay across the country There are also Malay tribes like the Igorots , Ifugaos , Bontoks , and Tinggians of LuzonLegend and Fairy Tales: Legend and Fairy Tales The legend and fairy tale about the origin of the country is told by the story of: 1. malakas and maganda 2. story of brown peopleOur Malayan Heritage: Our Malayan Heritage Our Malay ancestors had brought to our shores their ancestral culture including food and drinks, mode of dressing, housing, society, government and laws, writing, language, literature, music, economy, religion, arts and sciences, superstitious beliefs and customs and traditionsFood and Drinks: Food and Drinks The staple food of the early Filipinos was rice Aside from rice, their food consisted of carabao meat, pork, chickens, sea turtles, fish, bananas, and other fruits and vegetables They cooked their food by rubbing two pieces of dry wood which then heated produced a flame They stored their drinking water in earthen jar or in huge clean bamboo tubePowerPoint Presentation: The popular wine of our ancestors was tuba which was made from coconut Other wines were basi , an Ilocano wine made from sugarcane; pangasi , a Bisayan wine made from fermented rice; lambanog , a Tagalog wine taken from the coconut palm; and the tapuy , an Igorot wine distilled from riceMode of dressing: Mode of dressing Men wore collarless, short-sleeved jacket called kangan and a strip of cloth called bahag , wrapped around the waist and in between legs The jacket ( kangan ) reached slightly below the waist It was dyed ( tining )either in blue or black except that of the datu which is red Instead of hat, men use putong , a piece of cloth wound around the head They had no shoes They had jewels, such as gold necklaces, gold armlets called kalombigas and gold anklets filled with agates and other colored glassPowerPoint Presentation: Women wore side-sleeved jacket called baro Skit was patadyong , a piece of cotton cloth which they wrapped about their waists and let fall to their feet They wore jewels consisted of gold necklaces, gold bracelets, large gold earrings, and gold rings They are barefooted Both men and women inserted gold between their teeth as an ornamentTattoos: Tattoos Early Filipinos tattooed their bodies with animals, birds, flowers, and geometric figures to: Enhance beauty Show their war recordHouse: House They lived in houses made of bamboo, wood, and palm leaves They were built near each other in the barangay Each house had a bamboo ladder They had batalan where jars of water were kept for household purposes Some of them lived in tree-houses. Bagobos and Kalingas still live in such houses The Badjaos of the Sulu sea still live in boat housesOur Heritage from India, China, and Arabia: Our Heritage from India, China, and ArabiaEarly Relations with India: Early Relations with India Hindus from the Asian mainland and nearby island came to the Philippines as early as 900AD They came peacefully for trading purposesHindi Antiques: Hindi Antiques Gold Image of Agusan This statue of Hindu goddess was found in Esperanza, Agusan Province in 1917 Copper Image of Banesha This statue of elephant god of the Hindus was found in Mactan in 1843 Gold pendant of Garuda The legendary bird of India found in Brooke’s Point, Palawan in 1961Other Hindu Heritage: Other Hindu Heritage The Hindu heritage of the Philippines is religious, social, and economic Traces of Hindu culture is found in our religion, jobs, writing, language, customs, and race Hindus taught us to pray many gods, spirits, and images The word “ Bathala ” is of Indian originPowerPoint Presentation: In jobs, the Hindus gave us industries such as: mining quicklime in masbate , weaving cotton cloth, making lotus designs, making guitas , making sampaguita flower leis, raising fruits (mango, langka , and sirisa ) and vegetables ( ampalaya , patola and malunggay ) In writing, our ancient alphabet came from their Sanskrit wiring In language, the Pilipino ( Tagalog ) language has 375 Sanskrit words examples: Ama , asawa , halaga , maharlika , nanay , mutya , paa , raha , and sandataPowerPoint Presentation: The sarong and the putong were of Indian origins The tight-fitting trousers and embroidered shawls of the present-day Muslim-Filipinos are of Indian origins Many superstitious beliefs were from India The customs we learned from India were: Hanging of garland Giving of dowry Showering of rice to groom and bride Offering buyo to visitorsPowerPoint Presentation: Artistic designs of gold necklaces and the lotus designs of bolo handles including kudyapi are among of the Indian originsEarly Relations with China : Early Relations with China In 1982 AD, Filipinos from Mindoro sailed to Canton, South China in Arap ship. They sold their gold to the Chinese and then went home, the first contact with China Chinese merchants also came to the philippines in their junks (Chinese sailing ship) They did business in Lingayen Gulf, Manila Bay, Mindoro, and SuluPowerPoint Presentation: China before was the powerful country in the world, this prompted early Filipinos to offer gifts to the Emperror The largest group of early Filipino tourists in China arrived at Beijing in 1417. they were more than 340 men and women including 3 datus of Mindanao. Today, there is a large community of Filipinos in China in the Shandong province when a datu died during the visit to the Emperror . His name was Paduka Pahala on September 13, 1417Our Chinese Heritage: Our Chinese Heritage Our Chinese heritage is economic and social Traces of Chinese influences are found in jobs, costumes, food, customs, language, and blood Filipinos learned to make gun powder, mine for gold, work with metal, use porcelain, gongs, and metals, and to make kites In costumes, we were able to follow from the chinese of our jackets, loose trousers, slippers, wooden shoes, fans, and umbrellas. Wearing of white clothes for mourning is of Chinese originChinese customs: Chinese customs Respect for elders Arranged marriages Worship of dead ancestors Use of firecrackers at New Year Giving of tong for owners of gambling dens Gambling such as jueteng , cards, and mah-jongPowerPoint Presentation: In language, about 1500 words in the Tagalog vocabulary came from the Chinese: Bakya , ate, bantay , buwisit , gunting , kuya , pinto, and susi Many Chinese married to Filipina women and lived in the PhilippinesEarly relations with Arabia: Early relations with Arabia In ancient times, Arab missionaries and traders came to the Philippines In 1380, the first Arab visitor named Mukdum came to Sulu from Mecca, Saudi Arabia. He spread Islam and built the first mosque at Simunul , Sulu In 1450, another Arab missionaries named Abu Bakr went to Jolo . He married to the princess of Jolo and founded the sultanate of Sulu In 1475, an Arab trader named Kabungsuwan landed at Cotabato . He also got married to the local princess and founded the sultanate of MaguindanaoOur Arab Heritage: Our Arab Heritage Arabic culture influenced our religion, politics, and social life The Arabs gave the Muslim Filipinos the religion of Islam In politics, Arab introduced the sultanate form of government and laws The title of the sultan, raha , dayang (princess), and kali (judge) came from the Arabs Some examples of Muslim customs: polygamy, divorce, and the pilgrimage to MeccaPowerPoint Presentation: In our social life, the Muslim Filipinos follow the Muslim way of life Their calendar and holidays are Muslim Some plays are from Arab origin such as the singkil Some Tagalog words which are of Arab origin are: alaak , apo , bukas , pilat , salamat , and sulatEarly relations with other Asians: Early relations with other Asians Our early ancestors had contacts with Borneo, Malaya, Malacca, Thailand, Kapuchea , and Indonesia for trading You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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