# Cause and Effect

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### Cause and Effect :

Cause and Effect Prepared by Maria Karaan

### Cause and Effect Analysis :

Cause and Effect Analysis thing, person, condition, or event responsible for an action or a result result breaking down a whole into parts for study

### RubeGoldberg :

RubeGoldberg Pulitzer prize-winning cartoonist famous for his ability to link one event to another--in an outrageous fashion!

### Complicating the world one convoluted cause at a time. :

Complicating the world one convoluted cause at a time. (A) Open window (B) and fly kite. (C) String lifts (D) small door (E) allowing moths to escape and (F) eat red flannel shirt. As the shirt’s weight lessens, (G) shoe (H) steps on switch which (I) heats electric iron (J) and burns a hole in the pants. (K) Smoke enters the (L) hole in the tree, (M) smoking out the possum (N) which jumps in the basket, (O) pulling the rope and (P) lifting the cage, (Q) allowing the woodpecker (R) to chew wood from the pencil. (S) Emergency knife available in case either the possum or the woodpecker dies.

### Cause and Effect Patterns :

Cause and Effect Patterns One Cause -> One Effect One Cause -> Many Effects Many Causes -> One Effect Remote Cause -> Immediate Cause -> Effect Remote Cause -> Immediate Effect -> Effect

### Causation :

Causation Generally, two rules are followed in causation: If X occurs, then Y will occur. If X doesn’t occur, then Y will not occur.

Causal Fallacies

### Post Hoc :

Post Hoc Inferring X causes Y just because X is followed by Y. Example: I won the competition because I wore this shirt. This must be a lucky shirt.

### Joint Effect :

Joint Effect Inferring that Y is the cause and Z is the effect when, in reality, Y and Z are both effects of X. Example: He believes that he lost the respect of his colleagues because his marriage failed. However, it is truly because of his infidelity that both had happened.

### Wrong Direction :

Wrong Direction Inferring that X is the cause of Y when Y is actually the cause of X. Example: All company CEOs have large yachts. As such, you must have a large yacht to be a CEO.

### Insignificant (Oversimplified Cause) :

Insignificant (Oversimplified Cause) Inferring that X is the cause of Y when other causes are far more compelling. Example: Crime rates are increasing. I knew that removing religion from the curriculum would lead to terrible things.

### Slippery Slope :

Slippery Slope Y, the effect, is said to have been caused by an alleged chain reaction, which has insufficient proof of actually occurring. Example: Stop drinking coffee! It’s addicting. Soon, you might be taking something stronger. Then, you’ll be doing drugs.

### Genetic Fallacy :

Genetic Fallacy Confusing X, the cause, with the meaning or origin of the effect or the belief. Example: Wedding rings should not be worn by women because they originally symbolized being a property of the husband.