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ORGANISATION Organisation is a ‘social unit’ with some specific purpose (s) “Organising” is a subject of the larger activity of “managing” It is the process by which the structure of of an organisation is created and maintained All activities involving 2 or more persons Simple or complex depending on their purposes, size, technology, or nature of activities

Characteristics of organisation:

Characteristics of organisation Organisations have purposes (be they explicit or implicit), it attracts people, acquire and use the resources to achieve the objectives, use some form of structure to divide (division of labour) and coordinate activities, and rely on certain positions/ people to lead or managing others


Organisation being part of the society affects and is affected by the changes in society. It is essential to develop a perspective understanding about organisations because human behaviour and organisational behaviour are influenced by the people in organisations and the specific characteristics in the basic elements in the organisations and the way they adapt themselves to the environment


ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT An organisation is a system consisting of four interacting subsystems STRUCTURE, TASK, TECHNOLOGY, PEOPLE Organisation as a system can be changed and developed to achieve its goals in the best possible way


GOALS OF AN ORGANISATION The goals of an organisation, generally, are: survival, stability, profitability, growth and service to society. From one organisation to another, the goal or goals may differ depending upon at what stage of development the organisation is An organisation can achieve its goal if it is able to respond to changes within the external and internal environment


ORGANISATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS External Environment The external environment is in terms of forces in the social, political, economic and cultural factors. Competition from similar organisations, changing needs of the public, knowledge explosion, rapid growth of technology- all constitute threat to organisational effectiveness


INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Organisation has also to take into cognizance its internal environment which includes existing structure, technology, needs and expectations of its people, and the changing scenario of labour force ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT (OD) is a planned approach to respond effectively to changes in external and internal environments


SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT Essentially there are two schools of thought in OD 1) Programme – Procedure School 2) System- Process School


PROGRAMME-PROCEDURE SCHOOL It is older approach. According to it, OD is the effective implementation of the organisation’s policies, procedures and programmes. It is concerned with personnel activities and contribute to the overall growth and development of the organisation such as recruitment, training, career development, compensation, welfare and benefits, labour relations, etc. Personnel development is primarily concerned with OD activities


SYSTEM- PROCESS SCHOOL This school considers organisation development in the context of both its internal and external environment Proponents of this approach view organisation as a system which can be changed and developed to best achieve its goals and objectives An emerging role for OD is a system based and focuses on total organisation effectiveness and hence goes beyond the traditional personnel programme The emphasis is much more on work groups within and across departments rather than individuals as such While personnel programmes demand conformity for prescribed policies and procedures, the system process school encourages openness and collaborative ways of solving problems so that the outcomes as advantageous to both individuals and organisation. ( It is likely that the objectives of both the schools are contradictory to some extent)

Differences between the two schools:

Differences between the two schools Programme Procedure System Process Internal Internal and external Personnel oriented Department Individual Group Sectional Holistic Prescriptive Open System internal Interdisciplinary


DEFINITION OF OD OD may be defined as a systematic, integrated and planned approach to improve the effectiveness of the enterprise It is designed to solve problems that adversely effect the operational efficiency at all levels. It is based on scientific awareness of human behaviour and organisation dynamics Being an organisation wide effort, it is directed towards more participative management and integration of individual goals and organisational goals


GOALS OF OD OD is intended to create an internal environment of openness, trust, mutual confidence and collaboration and to help the members of the organisation to interact more effectively in the pursuit of organisational goals. Thus the organisation is enabled to cope effectively with external forces in the environment.


OBJECTIVES OF OD 1. Improved organisational performance as measured by profitability, market share, innovativeness etc. 2. Better adaptability of the organisation to its environment 3. Willingness of the members to face organisational problems and contribute creative solutions to these problems 4. Improvement in internal behaviour patterns such as interpersonal relations, inter-group relations, level of trust and support among role members, understanding one’s own self and others, openness and meaningful communication and involvement in planning for organisational development.


CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OD In any OD effort the totality of the organisation is to be taken into account. The approach should be holistic either for identifying the need for change within or for planningand implementing a change Until the intended change is absorbed in the total system, optimal collaboration, synergism and efficiency cannot be obtained


Continued The intended changes in OD programmes may be carried out at any of the sub-system level such as: - organisational structure - task accomplishment - work climate (inter personnel and inter group relations, work values) - methods of decision making and problem solving - technology

Benefits of planned effort:

Benefits of planned effort The benefits of the planned effort to the organisation are measured in terms of improvements noticed in the performance of the sub-system where the change has been implemented, related sub-systems that have an interface with the changed sub-system, and the organisation as a whole

Intended changes:

Intended changes a) Intend changes in the organisational structure should be initiated on the basis of a study of the existing structure especially the formal relationships, span of control and functions performed by each individual in the context of the others (macro level) b) Another approach to OD is at micro level ie. At the job level. Job related aspects such as authority, responsibility, activities performed, overlapping roles etc, are considered for modification in keeping with the attitudes, expectations of the role incumbents.

Intended changed continued:

Intended changed continued Research studies have shown that job attitudes and job satisfaction influence performance c) OD practitioners also aim at improving the interpersonal climate. The work climate of openness, trust and collaboration has positive influence on performance, while the climate of suspicion, distrust and hostility result in low or mediocre performance. The climate should be supportive, proactive and allow for opportunities to be creative and original d) Communication is the life of an organisation and effective communication is basic to internal work climate e) Decision making is another important area for OD intervention


MODELS OF OD Kurt Lewin’s Unfreezing-Changing- Refreezing Model Griener’s Sequential Process Leavitt’s System Model

Salient issues in OD:

Salient issues in OD 1. The OD effort should begin at the top level of the management and permeate organisation till it reaches the lower levels. 2. The external consultant helps in problem identification, problem solving and implementing action plan without creating dependency needs in the client system. In other words, the external agent helps the client to help himself so that the latter develops ability to function independently. 3. Client is either a particular target group or the total organisation


Continued 4. Change may occur in individual behaviour or organisational behaviour. 5. Identifying the needed change depends upon determining the nature and type of the problem within the organisation 6. While the earlier approaches have concentrated in individual changes, the present trend emphasizes on the holistic approach of dealing with group or teams. 7. Evaluating effectiveness of OD programmes is as important as identifying the problem and the appropriate intervention techniques


SUMMARY OD Effort is a planned change involves the total system managed with total acceptance and commitment of the top management is designed to improve organisational effectiveness makes use of behavioural science knowledge

Summary- Contd:

Summary- Contd is in terms of intervention at the task or structure or technology or people level is an ongoing process and long term process relies primarily on experiential learning uses an action research intervention mode

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