Role and Future Trend of TVET to Enhance

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Role and Future Trend of TVET to Enhance : Bangladesh Context

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Presentation on Role and Future Trend of TVET to Enhance Skill

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Dr. Md. Abu Raihan Ph.D. (KOREA), M.Sc. & P.G.Dip . (Technical Education), B.Sc. Engg . (Mechanical) (IUT) Associate Professor, Department of Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) Islamic University of Technology (IUT) Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Presenter

TVET (Objectives of TVET):

TVET (Objectives of TVET) “Education is priority but TVET is priority of the priorities” - (Education Minister, Peoples republic of Bangladesh in the Int. IDEB-CPSC Conference in July 2017) “TVET as a key policy instrument to promote employment, inclusion and lifelong learning. Qualification framework of TVET could also become the new global skills currency ” - (Conference UNESCO Headquarters, Paris where more than 125 participants took part in the conference in October 2016) “While education is the key to any development process, TVET is the Master Key’ that can transform the world of work and the economy, alleviate poverty, save the environment and improve the quality of life” - ( Luisoni , 2005) “TVET is not preparation for life, TVET is life itself and a significant tool to elevate socio-economic status by alleviating level of poverty and solve social problems with innovative technologies ” - (Dr. Md. Abu Raihan , 2017)

What is meant by SKILL?:

What is meant by SKILL? Source: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/skill.html An ability and knowledge (capacity) acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and people (interpersonal skills).

What is Poverty?:

What is Poverty? The prime objectives of Skill development is to eradicate poverty. How to reduce the level of Poverty by SKILL?

Introduction (Role of TVET to enhance skill):

Introduction (Role of TVET to enhance skill) Today technical and vocational education and training (TVET) has been built upon rich in world history and tradition of Diploma Engineering adapted to meet the dynamic demands of the world economy. For instance, the program TVET at the secondary, postsecondary and adult level prepare youths and adults for a wide range of specialized areas such as green skills for green jobs, bio-medial, renewable energy, entrepreneurial skills, tourism and hotel management, health care, service skills, skills on ICTs, building management systems etc. In this regard, TVET today reflects the modern workplace and since majority of careers require postsecondary qualifications, high level TVET programs incorporate rigorous academic and technical standards, including and not limited to Science, Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) as well as critical thinking, problem solving skills, communication and team building skills, to ensure success for its students. Hence, TVET has a positive impact on student to achieve success and easy transition into world of work.

Introduction (Role of TVET to enhance skill):

The Diploma Engineering program of TVET help students to bolster their confidence and empower them to succeed in their workplace. And because TVET demonstrates a positive return on investment to a country, it is a trusted and long-standing partner with the employment market. And since Diploma Engineering programs can be found in rural and sub-urban areas in Bangladesh. TVET has the capacity and infrastructure to be the vehicle to prepare students of all ages to be successful in this ever-changing, world marketplace. It is essential to ensure that Diploma Engineering programs in Bangladesh are high standard of excellence. With the demands of the 21 Century and the way in which technology changes, coupled with the challenges of student engagement and achievement, the growing world competition have created an urgency to evaluate the role of TVET in Bangladesh. Introduction (Role of TVET to enhance skill)

Introduction (Role of TVET to enhance skill):

As a means to meet the current needs and anticipating the future demands of the economy, TVET is critical to the economic success of Bangladesh. TVET can lead in building collaborative links between education, workforce development and economic development, to make sure there is alignment of policies and program delivery. The Polytechnic institutions offer opportunities for many young people to gain skills both for employment market and self-employment/entrepreneurship. TVET programs are flexible in how and when they are delivered, and are innovative and quick to respond to employer needs. Standards incorporated in the programs are rigorous, blended academic and technical content, and internationally benchmarked. Introduction (Role of TVET to enhance skill)

Transformation of TVET (What Berlin Congress Identified?):

Transformation of TVET ( What Berlin Congress Identified?) TVET has low status in the society Insufficient facilities TVET is supply-driven rather than demand-driven Difficulties to cope with rapid technological progress and changes in the labor market Lack of learning material hampering the quality of training and education Training of technical teachers is a critical issue Lower participation of women in TVET High cost of TVET , and TVET needs International cooperation. Source: International consultation meeting on Transforming TVE for meeting the challenges of the green economy

Transformation of TVET (What Seoul Congress Identified?):

Transformation of TVET (What Seoul Congress Identified?) M ain challenges of 21 century is to TVET because of Changing demands Innovating the education and training process Technical and vocational education for all Changing roles of government and other stakeholders in TVET, and Enhancing international cooperation in TVET. Source: International consultation meeting on Transforming TVE for meeting the challenges of the green economy

Transformation of TVET (What Shanghai Congress Identified?):

Transformation of TVET (What Shanghai Congress Identified?) Enhancing relevance of TVET Expanding access and improving quality and equity Adapting qualifications and developing pathways Improving the evidence base Strengthening governance and expanding partnerships, and Increasing investment in TVET and diversifying finance. Source: International consultation meeting on Transforming TVE for meeting the challenges of the green economy

Difference between Technical Education and Skill Training:

Difference between Technical Education and Skill Training Technical Education (TE) Skill Training (ST) Technical education enrich the students to gain technical knowledge and skills in relevant subject or technology. Technical Education is more relevant with higher technology based job/economy. TE provides 60% (T), 40% (P ). Skills training makes someone perform his/her duties effectively, efficiently and accurately. Skills Training is more relevant with low technology based job/ economy . ST provides 80% (P), 20% (T ).

Existing Skills Level of Bangladesh Labor Market :

Existing Skills Level of Bangladesh Labor Market Source: NSDC Report 2016

Migration in 2015 by Skill Category:

Migration in 2015 by Skill Category Source: BMET Report 2015

Some emerging issues of TVET in Bangladesh:

Some emerging issues of TVET in Bangladesh Demographic trends Labor market trends Technological changes Inclusive globalization Education reforms Sustainable development Climate change Green initiative and Peace and security.

Profile of Bangladesh:

Area: 147,570  km² GDP 2015-2016 (P): 7.05% Per capita GDP (US$): 1,384 (P ) Population: 16,26,50000+ Workable Population: 66% (2015) 70% (2030) 67% (2050) Working Population: 73 Million (Estimated) Unemployment Rate: 4.30% Minimum Wages: BDT 5300 (US$ 67.50) Profile of Bangladesh

Demographic dividend of Bangladesh:

Demographic dividend of Bangladesh Figure: 1 Demographic dividend of Bangladesh (Skills Context by 2030)

Challenging questions for the future TVET:

Challenging questions for the future TVET D emographic dividend which comes in a country after 100 years, helps improving living standards of the population through increased female participation in labor market, improved quality of labor force etc . This 'dividend' at present provides an opportunity to Bangladesh to make use of its working-age population for productive socio-economic activities. But the opportunity and the reality are dissimilar. Currently, Bangladesh has a lot of opportunities for technical-job but , TVET graduates are unable to apply for the jobs because they didn’t possess skills required for the jobs. For translating this opportunity into a reality, investments in skill development is one of the most critical factors. Challenging questions for the future TVET are: What skills will they need in general? What skills will they need for the domestic market? What skills will they need for the global market? Will traditional capacity development channels be effective?

Proposed Skills & Education System :

Proposed Skills & Education System More Emphasis on Technical Education and Skill Training Education and Skill Training Must be Industry Driven All Education Sub-systems Need to be Accessible at Some Point Skilled Job Market Should be Linked with Skill Training or / and Apprentice Skilled Certification Need to be Linked with Jobs and Wages . Skilled Training and Apprenticeship Must be Open for all Inclusiveness in TVET & Skills Training Must be E nsured a nd Education and Skill Training System Needs to be Flexible to Support LLL. Source: Adapted by NSDC i.e., NSDA

Future trends and challenges of TVET to enhance skill:

Future trends and challenges of TVET to enhance skill Competency Based Training ( CBT) Changing Technologies Traditional vs Technology-enhanced TVET Classrooms ICT Infusion in Pedagogy (Blended-learning) Enrich Apprenticeship Program and Entrepreneurship Development Through TVET.

Future trend and challenges of TVET..:

Future trend and challenges of TVET.. Competency is a combination of … within the required standards of the workplace needed to do a… 1. CBT What is Competency? HEAD ……….what someone know HANDS ……..What someone can do HEART ………How someone behaves

Paradigm shift for enhancing skill through TVET:

Paradigm shift for enhancing skill through TVET Learning is a process of developing : K nowledge (Cognitive Domain )……………… S kill (Psychomotor Domain)……………. A ttitude (Affective Domain). Learning is a process of developing 3H Changing Knowledge (Cognitive Domain) ………H ead Changing Skill (Psychomotor Domain) ……….H and Changing Attitude (Affective Domain) ………. H eart

Balancing : Knowledge, Skill and Attitude :

Balancing : Knowledge, Skill and Attitude “Knowledge comes with learning, Skill comes with practice, Attitude never comes, but changed.” - Dr. Md. Abu Raihan

Ten Features of Competency Based Training (CBT) :

Ten Features of Competency Based Training (CBT) Based on Competency Standards Focus on Outcomes Not on Inputs Involvement of Industry Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL ) Modularized Self-Paced Facilitator and Resource Person Assessment Based on “What the Trainee Can Do ” Assessment is Criterion-Referenced Delivery System is Flexible Competencies Widely Recognized .

Traditional TVET vs Competency Based Training (CBT) :

Traditional TVET vs Competency Based Training (CBT) Transform Your T eaching E xperience

2. Technology trends:

2. Technology trends

3. Traditional vs Technology-enhanced TVET Classrooms:

3. Traditional vs Technology-enhanced TVET Classrooms

4. ICT infusion in Pedagogy :

4. ICT infusion in Pedagogy

Blended-learning: Technology integration :

Blended-learning: Technology integration

Blended learning environment to enhance skills :

Blended learning environment to enhance skills

5. Enrich Apprenticeship program:

Apprenticeship: What it is? Apprenticeship means the system by which an employer engage a young person to train systematically for a trade for a period/duration and work in the employer’s service. Apprenticeship in Bangladesh is administered by the Bureau of Manpower Employment and Training (BMET). 5. Enrich Apprenticeship program

TVET Challenges in future: minimizing Skill-mismatch & Skill-gap:

TVET Challenges in future: minimizing Skill-mismatch & Skill-gap Matching-skill to job market is imperative because of needs to confront the simultaneous occurrence of skill shortages and unemployment in various heterogeneous regions or industries in Bangladesh . Skill-Mismatch happens due to: Increasing Globalization Demand on new technologies Changing technology Changing patterns of work Mismatch between supply (training) and demand (skills required) Lack of adequate industry participations Over qualification and under-employment Under qualification (including skill-gaps reported by employers) C hanging nature of jobs, including polarization Lack of modern tools and equipment Lack of tripartite (Government, Employer and Worker) approach . Skills-Gap can be clearly explained by the following relation : Skills-gap = (Skills required on the job) – (Actual skills possessed by the employee).

Apprenticeship to Minimize Skill Gap :

Apprenticeship to Minimize Skill Gap

Apprenticeship Status of Bangladesh :

Apprenticeship Status of Bangladesh Source: BMET Report

Bangladesh Apprenticeship Strategy: Targets by 2021 :

Bangladesh Apprenticeship Strategy: Targets by 2021 Apprenticeship: 10% of labor force by 2020 Vacancy for apprentice employment: > 5% Apprenticeship quota: 10% priority score Establish adequate data management system. Source: BMET Report

6. Entrepreneurship Development Through TVET:

6. Entrepreneurship Development Through TVET TVET is the nursery for future entrepreneurs, TVET prepares its graduates for employment in the workplace or in other words, TVET reduces unemployment from the society, For entrepreneurial work, TVET curriculum should be shifted from content to competences, Entrepreneurial Skills needed for TVET graduates are: Team-building skills, Problem-solving skills, Skill on critical thinking, Communication and collaboration skills.

Some skills needed for successful entrepreneur:

Some skills needed for successful entrepreneur S pecific skills are needed for entrepreneurship development successfully (for starting a business): Skill on business plan drafting (Product, Price, Place and Promotion), Accounting and marketing skills, Knowledge of commercial laws, Skill on administrative procedures, and Environmental skills.

Successful history of entrepreneurs:

Successful history of entrepreneurs “If you are born poor, it’s not your mistake, but if you die poor, it’s your mistake” – Bill Gates “I failed in some subjects in exam, but my friends passed in all. Now they are engineers in Microsoft, and I’m the owner of Microsoft” – Bill Gates

Successful history of entrepreneurs:

Successful history of entrepreneurs "Our parents [simply] want us to earn a university degree and get a good job. To them, that's the yardstick of success. They cannot even remotely think that their children should do something on their own" – Sabirul Islam

Successful history of entrepreneurs:

Successful history of entrepreneurs “You should not be a job seeker , you should be a job giver” – Prof. Dr. M. Yunus

QUESTIONS FOR ENTREPRENEURS:

QUESTIONS FOR ENTREPRENEURS What business am I in? What are my products or services? Who are my competitors? Who is my target market? What’s the best marketing strategy? How should my resources be utilized? Source : (UNDP-ICCIA-SCCI , 2013)

Requirement for enhancing skill in Bangladesh:

Requirement for enhancing skill in Bangladesh If technology is universal, it is not wise to set local occupational standard or curriculum . It is needed to adopt a suitable international standard and learning materials (if necessary that can be translated in Bangla ) New assessment system with more emphasize on skills need to be introduced rather than more assessment on theoretical aspects. It is necessary to involve 3 rd party assessment on skilled attainment. Quality must be ensured in TE and skill training. At least 80% marks need to be allocated for skills attainment. More emphasis should be given on individual work rather than group work.

Requirement for enhancing skill in Bangladesh:

Requirement for enhancing skill in Bangladesh Group works of the students must be linked with project work. For theoretical aspect, assessment may be taken online. All skills assessment must be carried out in presence of industry assessors. Teachers/Instructors/Facilitators are key for the success of skills development. TVET teachers should have relevant industry experience. Compulsory foundation training for all TVET teachers/ instructors/ facilitators. Compulsory pedagogy and skill training for all of them. Expert Guest Speakers may be invited to enrich the core faculty members.

Requirement for enhancing skill in Bangladesh:

Requirement for enhancing skill in Bangladesh New set-up for managing huge numbers of apprentice as per labor rules 2015. Number of RPL center needs to be increased and placed at least one in each district . RPL assessment needs to be designed according to job opportunities . If NTVQF level 1 does not match with job market, NTVQF Level 1 & Level 2 can be merged together . Include experts from industry in the TVET network to support skilled training and make them resource person for TE. Teacher students ratio should not be more than 1:25 Comprehensive annual auditing system need to be included to ensure TVET quality .

Conclusion:

Conclusion Employable Skills Ensure Decent Job. Decent Job is Our Destiny . We Can Earn It Through Life Long Learning . TVET is the Right Path for Employable Skills.

Discussions & Recommendations:

Discussions & Recommendations The global economy places a premium on skills acquisition and innovation. Therefore all workers must be lifelong learners who continue to cultivate and grow their knowledge and skills through further education. TVET programs prepare students to be successful by providing adaptable skills and knowledge, thereby ensuring flexibility to any other fields of interests due to change and as opportunity emerges and economy transforms. To document competencies of theses knowledge and skills, reliable and valid assessments which result in nationally recognized and portable credentials, are necessary. As a means to accomplish this, Bangladesh needs to support policies that require each student to have his/her own learning plan which clearly chalks out a comprehensive strategy to achieve his/her education and career goals. In a program of study, the standards, curriculum, and assessments are aligned, thereby ensuring coordination and seamless delivery of instructions and transitions for students. Students are given opportunities to explore countless career possibilities and have access to comprehensive career planning that empowers them to plan and prepare for a lifetime technical and vocational occupational and educational choices. Relevant work-based learning opportunities and leadership development offered through TVET student organizations are incorporated into the program of study. In order to accomplish this, it is needed to assemble and lead TVET employers, labor and government of Bangladesh to develop policy, resources and technical assistance to help with the design and implementations of programs of study as a standard approach to delivering high quality TVET.

Discussions & Recommendations:

TVET curriculum should includes creativity, innovations, and ideas to plan and manage small projects, ventures in order to achieve objectives of self-employment as well as creating new jobs & technologies. Provide outcome-based and job-specific teaching/training. Occupational skills according to the occupational standards needed to be integrated in the classroom teaching as preparation of TVET graduates for the world of work . Entrepreneurship Education in TVET should be nicely integrated & expanded effectively . Job-placement and job-monitoring cell should be established. Discussions & Recommendations

Suggestions for inspiring TVET skills:

Suggestions for inspiring TVET skills Increase social inclusions of TVET, Remove gender sensitivity, Ensure green curriculum and green campus, Develop SMART classrooms, Implements CBT&A, RPL, NTVQF, Apprenticeship perfectly, Focus of employers demand, Focus on employee motivations, and Increase market responsiveness.

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