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How to Care for the Diabetic Client:

How to Care for the Diabetic Client By Manuel A. Gallegos RN, BSN Personal Care Assistant Class FALL 2016

The Digestive System:

The Digestive System


Objectives Understand the role of insulin and how healthy people convert glucose into energy in the cells Define Diabetes Understand the difference between Type I and Type II Diabetes Know signs, symptoms, and treatment of hyperglycemia versus hypoglycemic patients Know 3 areas Caregivers can significantly help protect Diabetic clients

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy :

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work: This energy comes from the food we eat Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high

Play video:

Play video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9ivR4y03DE

How does insulin work?:

How does insulin work? Insulin helps your body turn blood sugar (glucose) into energy It also helps your body store it in your muscles, fat cells, and liver to use later, when your body needs it After you eat, your blood sugar (glucose) rises This rise in glucose triggers your pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream Insulin travels through the blood to your body's cells

How does insulin work cont..?:

How does insulin work cont..? Insulin tells the cells to open up and let the glucose in Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy or store it to use later Without insulin, your body can't use or store glucose for energy Instead, the glucose stays in your blood

How the Body Makes Insulin? :

How the Body Makes Insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin into the bloodstream

The pancreas produces insulin:

The pancreas produces insulin

Definition of Diabetes:

Definition of Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (sometimes called "sugar diabetes") is a condition that occurs when the body can't use glucose (a type of sugar) normally Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells The levels of glucose in the blood are controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is made by the pancreas Insulin helps glucose enter the cells

What is the difference between Type I and Type II Diabetes?:

What is the difference between Type I and Type II Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy Type 2 diabetes, which is far more common, occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn't make enough insulin

Insulin Resistance:

Insulin Resistance

Definition continued….:

Definition continued…. In diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin ( type 1 diabetes ) Or the body can't respond normally to the insulin that is made ( type 2 diabetes ) This causes glucose levels in the blood to rise, leading to symptoms such as increased urination, extreme thirst, and unexplained weight loss

Difference Between Type I and Type II Diabetes:

Difference Between Type I and Type II Diabetes

Hyperglycemia Symptoms:

Hyperglycemia Symptoms

Causes and Treatment of Hyperglycemic Clients:

Causes and Treatment of Hyperglycemic Clients CAUSES: Too much food, too little insulin, illness or stress ONSET: Gradual, may progress to diabetic coma. BLOOD SUGAR: Above 200 mg/ dL . Normal range: 70-115 mg/ dL WHAT CAN YOU DO? Test blood sugar If over 250mg/ dL for several tests, CALL YOUR DOCTOR OR 911 ASAP

Cycle of Diabetic Patient:

Cycle of Diabetic Patient

Symptoms of Hypoglycemia:

Symptoms of Hypoglycemia

Causes and Treatment of Hypoglycemia:

Causes and Treatment of Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar ) CAUSES : Too little food, too much insulin or diabetes medicine, or extra exercise ONSET: Sudden, may progress to insulin shock. BLOOD SUGAR: Below 70 mg/ dL . Normal range: 70-115 mg/dl WHAT CAN YOU DO? Drink a cup of orange juice or milk or eat several hard candies Test Blood sugar

#1 area Caregivers can help Diabetic clients:

#1 area Caregivers can help Diabetic clients PERSONAL HYGIENE : Bathe client regularly and thoroughly, at least once a day Apply talcum powder frequently to areas of the skin prone to excessive sweating Bathe feet daily, dry them thoroughly and dust them with talcum powder, or use lotion Any infection of the skin must be treated immediately Make sure client sees his or her doctor regularly Dental hygiene must be thorough, visit your dentist regularly, and follow the advice

2nd Area Caregivers can assist diabetic clients:

2 nd Area Caregivers can assist diabetic clients AVOID INJURY : Small cuts, even abrasions should be dressed immediately Shave with utmost care In dressing wounds, avoid antiseptics which may burn or irritate the skin, such as iodine, carbolic acid, phenol or salicylic acid Be very careful when cutting your finger and toe nails Cut them after a bath when soft, using a nail cutter Do not try to cut them very short The nails should be cut in line with the toes

3rd area Caregivers can help protect diabetic clients:

3 rd area Caregivers can help protect diabetic clients FOOT CARE : Never allow client to walk barefoot and avoid tight shoes which may cause corns Shoes should be broad at the tip so as not to jam the toes and new shoes should be worn only for about half an hour at a time, preferably with cotton socks Do not cut corns or apply corn removers If the circulation of blood in your legs and feet is disturbed or impeded, the results can be very serious, and you may even lose your feet Things to do: Inspect and massage clients feet regularly and encourage regular walks to improve circulation Spend a few minutes a day lying down with feet raised above the level of your body Wear warm stockings in cold weather Do not wear socks with tight elastic bands

Diabetic Foot Care Tips:

Diabetic Foot Care Tips

Examples of Diabetic Ulcers:

Examples of Diabetic Ulcers

Important thoughts for Diabetics:

Important thoughts for Diabetics Control diet and regular exercise are critical for diabetics Daily self monitoring in the home and at work, routine check-ups by your doctor, will help verify your condition Self monitoring includes blood glucose testing and should be performed on a regular basis Good diabetic control is requires accurate records of all tests performed Results should be discussed with your doctor at each visit A well controlled diabetic feels better and lives a long, healthy, and productive life


Summary Insulin responds to increases in glucose in the blood stream and helps the body’s cells use glucose for energy Diabetes is defined as a condition that occurs when the body can't use glucose (a type of sugar) normally Type I Diabetes is a condition where the body does not produce any insulin and in Type II Diabetes the cells become resistant to insulin or the pancreas does not produce insulin Hyperglycemia may cause extreme thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, and nausea Hypoglycemia may cause shaking, sweating, anxiousness, and weakness Diabetic foot ulcers are very dangerous Caregivers should help clients with personal hygiene, avoiding injuries, and thorough foot care


References http://kulsummehmood.hubpages.com/hub/controldiabetes http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/type-1-diabetes/DS00329 http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/27/suppl_1/s5.full http://kidshealth.org/parent/diabetes_center/words_know/diabetes_mellitus.html http://www.ghc.org/healthAndWellness/index.jhtml?item=/common/healthAndWellness/conditions/diabetes/foodProcess.html http://www.ghc.org/popup.jhtml?item=/common/healthAndWellness/conditions/diabetes/insulinProcess.html

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