Adult and Elderly Nutrition

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Nutrition through the Life Cycle:

Nutrition through the Life Cycle Adult and Elderly

Definition of Adulthood :

Definition of Adulthood With good luck, good genes, and good habits, adulthood covers a life span of roughly 60 years. Early Adulthood – by the age of 20, adults have generally stopped growing Midlife – forties and fifties – body composition shifts, hormones shift, and activity decreases Old Age – after sixty – consequences of earlier lifestyle choices

Physiological Changes of Adulthood:

Physiological Changes of Adulthood Growth and maturation are complete by early adulthood Nutritional emphasis turns to maintaining physical status, continuing to build strength, and avoiding excess weight gain Differences between: Males Females

Energy Needs :

Energy Needs Harris-Benedict Equation Mifflin-St.Jeor Equation

Dietary Recommendations:

Dietary Recommendations Governmental and private groups make food and nutrition recommendations according to their missions and goals Advocating for reduction of specific disease risk (i.e. American Heart Association) Ensuring adequate population intake specific nutrients (i.e. FDA – fortification of grain products) Offering guidance on what and how much to eat. (i.e. Food Guide Pyramid, Dietary Guidelines for Americans)

Weight Change:

Weight Change 3500 calories to gain or lose 1 pound of body weight. To gain or lose 1 pound / week add or subtract 500 calories / day These calories can be a combination of intake and activity

Healthy People 2010 :

Healthy People 2010 Increase the number of individuals who are: At a healthy weight Eat at least two servings of fruit/day Eat at least three servings of vegetables/d Eat at least six servings of grain products/ d (with ½ of those as whole grains) Eat less than 10% calories from saturated fat Eat no more than 30 % of calories from fat Meet dietary recommendation for calcium Eat 2400 mg or less of sodium daily Increase food security and in doing decrease hunger Increase number physician visits as needed

Water needs:

Water needs 1 ml water per calorie of food ingested 2000 calorie diet = 2000 ml of water Eight 8 ounce glasses of water/day Are you receiving enough water? urine colorless or pale yellow

Physical Activity Recommendations:

Physical Activity Recommendations 30 minutes a day Intermittent physical activity also increases caloric expenditure

Definition of Elderly:

Definition of Elderly 65-74 years is “young old” 75-84 years is “aged” 85 and older is “oldest old” Diseases and disabilities are not inevitable consequences of ageing


Longevity The Center for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that longevity depends on: 19% genetics 10% access to health care 20% environmental factors 51% lifestyle factors

Physiological Changes:

Physiological Changes Body composition changes Weight gain Taste and smell Chewing and swallowing Appetite and thirst

Food Safety :

Food Safety Compromised immune systems Under reported due to individuals thinking it is the “flu” Causes may be: Improper temperatures Poor hygiene Contaminated equipment Inadequate cooking time

Physical Activity Recommendations :

Physical Activity Recommendations On average older adults are less active An evaluation by a physician is needed For general health exercise 30 minutes an day on most days Drink plenty of water Do warm up and cool down exercises

Physical Activity:

Physical Activity Encouraging physical activity will help older adults by Improving strength Maintaining muscle mass Improving activities of daily living Feeling better both mentally and physically, which may influence changes in dietary habits.

Community Food and Nutrition Programs:

Community Food and Nutrition Programs Governmental programs: USDA’s Food Stamp program Adult Day Services food programs Nutritional Assistance Programs for seniors Meals-on-Wheels Senior Nutrition program of the Older Americans Act

Community Food and Nutrition Programs:

Community Food and Nutrition Programs Non governmental home health programs provide food and nutrition services: Nursing Home health aides


"To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art." - La Rochefoucauld This material was funded by USDA’s Food Stamp Program through the California Department of Public Health’s Network for a Healthy California . These institutions are equal opportunity providers and employers. The Food Stamp Program provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help buy nutritious foods for a better diet. For information on the Food Stamp Program, call 1-888-328-3483.

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