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Premium member Presentation Transcript Globalization and Indian Education: Challenges and Opportunities : Globalization and Indian Education: Challenges and Opportunities Dr. Anil Shukla Dept. of Education (IASE) University of Lucknow Lucknow (India) Globalization : Globalization A series of complex, independent yet under related process of stretching, intensifying and accelerating world-wide inter-connectedness in all aspects of human relations and transactions such that events, decisions and activities in one part of the world have immediate consequences for individuals, groups and states in other parts of the world. Globalization has transformed world trade, communications, economic relations, interest rate, air fair, petrol price and share rate world wide in the 21st century and is having a similarly profound effect on Education too. Now in Education, time and distance have been compressed to such an extent with new involving methodologies, that learning centers have now been converted into ‘Global Market Place’ of Higher Education. : Globalization has transformed world trade, communications, economic relations, interest rate, air fair, petrol price and share rate world wide in the 21st century and is having a similarly profound effect on Education too. Now in Education, time and distance have been compressed to such an extent with new involving methodologies, that learning centers have now been converted into ‘Global Market Place’ of Higher Education. In the History of Indian Education the following four types of trends are very clearly visible: : In the History of Indian Education the following four types of trends are very clearly visible: Universalism Nationalism Internationalism Indigenization General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) in Education Service : General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) in Education Service GATS rules promise that all the member countries of WTO have to give treatment of Most Favoured Nation (MFN) to all other member countries. There should be similar national treatment to all WTO countries and there will be no domestic discrimination. WTO has identified four main modes of trade in Education that receive legal protection through GATS : WTO has identified four main modes of trade in Education that receive legal protection through GATS CROSS BORDER SUPPLY - through distance education or internet which can cross national boundaries. CONSUMPTION ABROAD - involves the education of foreign students and is the most common form of trade in educational services. COMMERCIAL PRESENCE - refers to the actual presence of foreign investors in a host country. This covers foreign universities setting up courses or entire institutions in another country. PRESENCE OF NATURAL PERSON - refers to the ability of people to move between countries to provide educational service. AREA : AREA This education service covers all types of Education (Primary, Secondary, Higher, Adult, Others) including apprentice-ship, training programme, foreign language instruction, training for career development, examination preparation, tutoring and educational support services, educational consultations, educational guidance, counseling, testing, student exchange programme etc. Trade reforms may not help a country which:- spends all its exports revenues on weapons- lacks good governance - has crippling debt overhangs and - lacks domestic capacity or infrastructure to take advantage of new market access opportunities : Trade reforms may not help a country which:- spends all its exports revenues on weapons- lacks good governance - has crippling debt overhangs and - lacks domestic capacity or infrastructure to take advantage of new market access opportunities India faces a tough test on the bases of these conditions CURRENT REALITIES: INDIA’S POSITION : CURRENT REALITIES: INDIA’S POSITION Globalization is based on interdependence where both the parties are dependent on each other on equal footing. But, in Education the reality is quite different. On the name of globalization, USA with 586000 foreign students is a leading exporter of Education service followed by UK (270000), Germany (227000) and Australia (174732) in the year 2002. The number of Indian student in USA in 1996-97 was 30641.This comprised the 6.70% of the total foreign students studying in USA, but in 2003-04, this number reached to 79736, which is the 13.9% of the total foreign students studying in USA. NUMBER OF INDIAN STUDENTS STUDYING IN USA IN LAST EIGHT YEARS : NUMBER OF INDIAN STUDENTS STUDYING IN USA IN LAST EIGHT YEARS Slide 11: India continues to remain the largest student sending country of origin, while the number of students from some countries (like China, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, UAE, Egypt, Indonesia and Thailand) in USA experienced sharp decline in 2004. Indian students in US increased by 22.30% from the academic year 2001 to the next year. The number of Chinese students grew only 5.5% during this time which dropped China from number one spot. In Texas University itself the Indian students make up almost half (45.30%) of all international students studying there. FOREIGN STUDENTS IN INDIA : FOREIGN STUDENTS IN INDIA The spirit of globalization should be reciprocal. A study by the Association of Indian Universities that covered 277 major Indian universities says that the number of foreign students in India shrunk from 12765 in 1992-93 to 7745 in 2003-04. If the country-wise position is analyzed the number of Malaysian students (806) is highest followed by Nepal (681), Iran (472) and Kenya (442). The significant numbers belonging to other countries are Bangladesh (319), UAE (232), Yemen (222) and Syria (25). India has many advantages in the field of Higher Education : India has many advantages in the field of Higher Education The IITs of India have been ranked the third best technology university in the world for the year 2005 Management institutions (IIMs) have their own credentials here Quality Education is possible on low cost Comfortable with the International language English as medium of instruction CHALLENGES AHEAD FOR INDIA : CHALLENGES AHEAD FOR INDIA cultural conflict equal share in educational business autonomy of institutions quality education to poorer classes local language and culture maintenance of native academic institutions lack of market oriented policies of the Government for the universities Slide 15: Curriculum gives sufficient inputs about local culture, problems and needs but in the time of globalization, the prescribed curriculum will respond to the need of which country is difficult to say. The current realities of globalization reflect a highly skewed relationship between East and West. Between free trade and education there is a fundamental conflict because in new situations ‘Invisible Hands’ will regulate the Education of any country/ society rather than the Welfare Government. ‘Right of Education’ is an empowerment right, now this will be managed by ‘Unforeseen Spirits’. PATH AHEAD FOR INDIA : PATH AHEAD FOR INDIA Political Will Education should be the direct responsibility of the Central Government Industry and University collaboration Demand of multinational industries should be met by the universities Rethink and redesign the courses and curriculum Private universities Foreign collaboration of universities Open franchise overseas Bold and innovative leadership by academicians, administrators, political leaders and policy makers ‘A world in One Nest’ : ‘A world in One Nest’ a plea by Indian thinker Rabindra Nath Tagore Lets pay heed to it ! 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