Planning(ses-6)

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Planning : 

Planning Nature of planning, Importance of planning, Forms of planning, Steps in planning, Limitations of planning manupriya@imi.ac.in

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Beginning of the process of management . It is an intellectual process , requires managers to think. Planning of What? When? How? & Who is? Decision –making integral part of planning. Planning is a continuous process Based on futurity It is goal oriented It is a primary function Planning is all-persuasive Planning is mental exercise Planning involves choice Planning is forward looking Planning is flexible Planning is an integrated process It includes efficiency effectiveness dimensions NATURE OF PLANNING

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Where are we now?: realistic assessment Where we want to be?: desirable objectives Gap?: amount of differences between How can we get there from here? Planning Questions??? IMPORTANCE PLANNING Minimizes Risk and uncertainty Leads to Success Focuses Attention on the Organization's Goals Facilitates Control Facilitates Decision making Provides direction It Unifying Framework Planning is Economical Encourage Innovations & Creativity Planning improves moral

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Top-down Approach Bottom-up Approach Composite Approach Team Approach Approaches to Planning Principles to Planning Principle of contribution to objectives Principle of primacy of planning Principle of pervasiveness of planning Principle of flexibility Principle of periodicity Principle of planning premises Principle of limiting force

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Long-range Planning Short-Range Planning or Operational Planning Tactical or Coordinative Planning Strategic Planning Formal & Informal Planning Functional Planning Corporate Planning Proactive Planning Reactive Planning FORMS OF PLANNING

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Establishing the objectives or Set Goals to be Achieved Developing Premises Deciding the Planning Period Finding Alternative Courses of Action Evaluating Alternatives & Selection Developing Derivative Plans Measuring & Controlling the Progress STEPS IN PLANNING

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Rigidity Costly & time Consuming Employee resistance False sense of security Managerial Deficiencies Planning prevents Innovations External Limitations * Difficult to Predict * Projected too far into the future * Emergency situations LIMITATIONS OF PLANNING

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Proper Climate Top Management Support Participation Communication Integration Monitoring MAKING PLANNING EFFECTIVE

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Managers’ errors are their subordinates trials