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By: Rajinder (156 month(s) ago)

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Geographic Information Systems(GIS) for Epidemiology and Public Health: 

<![CDATA[ Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Epidemiology and Public Health Dr. Ming-Hsiang Tsou Department of Geography, San Diego State University PPT slides: http://map.sdsu.edu/publications/2005GISpublichealthtsou.ppt ]]>


<![CDATA[ Acknowledgement Thank Dr. Brett A. Bryan for the permission of using some of his slides and GIS examples (from The University of Adelaide, AUSTRALIA. http://www.gisca.adelaide.edu.au/~bbryan/]]>


<![CDATA[ GIS is about geography and about thinking geographically. --- Demers, (Google Earth Movie) Http://earth.google.com (download) ]]>

What is “information”?: 

<![CDATA[ What is “information”? Data vs. Information (cooking example) Example: weather information What is “information system”? Information System is a chain of operations incorporating data collection and digitization, data storage and analysis, and interpretation. Examples: financial information systems (ATM).]]>

GIS definitions: 

<![CDATA[ GIS definitions Demers, 2000: GIS are tools that allow for the processing of spatial data into information, generally information tied explicitly to, and used to make decision about, some portion of the earth. A data input subsystem A data storage and retrieval subsystem A data manipulation and analysis subsystem A reporting subsystem (data output) (New) A data sharing mechanism]]>



Medical Geography: 

<![CDATA[ Medical Geography Control of infectious disease very important Disease control requires understanding Geography can provide intelligence Location can influence health John Snow's 1854 study – cholera mapping Spatial analysis can assist in solving medical problems]]>


<![CDATA[ Dr. John Snow’s London Street Map (1854) http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow/Snowpart2_files/frame.htm (slide 10-15)]]>

What GIS Can Do?: 

<![CDATA[ Integrate many different types of data Spatial data + Non-spatial data (statistical, texts,..) With GIS we can easily: Draw maps and visualize spatial distributions Edit and alter existing data Accurately measure distances and areas Overlay maps of different areas Internet GIS for public access. What GIS Can Do?]]>


<![CDATA[ Combine Geographic Locations with Attribute Data]]>

What GIS can help Public Health?: 

<![CDATA[ What GIS can help Public Health? Research Tools and Planning Constructing mathematical models Service planning and optimisation Making predictions Spatial Decision Support Systems Infrastructure – roads, towns, services Census – population statistics Medical resource (hospitals, clinics, available beds) Emergency Response Systems Medicare records, 911 services disease registers systems]]>

GIS Applications in Epidemiology: 

<![CDATA[ GIS Applications in Epidemiology 1. Data Visualisation and Exploration 2. Data Integration 3. Monitoring 4. Geostatistics and Modelling 5. Spatial Interaction and Diffusion 6. Data Sharing and Web Services]]>

Data Visualisation and Exploration: 

<![CDATA[ 2D visualisation capabilities – maps Distibutions Patterns Clusters 3D visualisation capabilities - surfaces 4D visualisation capabilities – temporal Animations Eg. Applied to spread/retreat of disease Increases understanding of disease Enables informed planning for disease management Data Visualisation and Exploration]]>


<![CDATA[ NCI's cancer atlas website http://www3.cancer.gov/atlasplus/ ]]>

Example: 3D Visualization and Animation: 

<![CDATA[ Example: 3D Visualization and Animation 3D Extrusion Animations for Weekly AIDS Mortality in the United States Jan 1981 -- Dec 1992 http://www.ciesin.org/datasets/cdc-nci/regions.html Animation]]>

Data Integration: 

<![CDATA[ Thematic structure Map Overlay Compute new information Research Integrated risk factor datasets to form risk model Used buffering, map algebra Able to predict likelihood of elevated blood lead levels, based on location of residence Data Integration]]>

Temporal Change: Malaria: 

<![CDATA[ Temporal Change: Malaria]]>


<![CDATA[ Monitoring – scrutiny over space and time Eg. Disease surveillance Through surveillance, a picture of disease activity is developed Geographic distribution of disease Patterns, clustering and hot spots GIS can provide data management and visualisation WWW can disseminate this information in real time Internet GIS ! (GEOG583 Internet Mapping) Requirement – infrastructure and data update SARS example. Monitoring]]>




<![CDATA[ San Diego Wildfire 2003 Http://map.sdsu.edu (GEOG 583) Internet Mapping]]>

Geostatistics and Modelling: 

<![CDATA[ Explore statistical relationships in data Build geostatistical surfaces Detect clusters Significant change over time and space “Statistical Alarm Bell” Display outlier or influential cases by location Statistical analysis also useful in finding zones of significantly higher disease prevalence Geostatistics and Modelling]]>


<![CDATA[ Investigating Dengue in Iquitos, Peru (maps from Dr. Art Getis, SDSU faculty)]]>

Modeling of Dengue Transmission: 

<![CDATA[ Modeling of Dengue Transmission Pictures from Dr. Dana A. Focks http://www.id-analysis.com/pages/ ]]>

Address Matching: 

<![CDATA[ Address Matching Convert patients’ addresses to the geospatial location on maps.]]>


<![CDATA[ ESRI User conference 2004 Keynote: Dr. Rita Colwell, Former Director of National Science Foundation, Professor of Microbiology and Biotechnology (on leave) at the University Maryland (WMV Movie)]]>

Application Examples : 

<![CDATA[ Application Examples GIS currently underutilized generally Great potential in: Epidemiological research Communicable disease control Health service planning and optimization]]>

Software Tools: 

<![CDATA[ Software Tools ESRI ArcView (entry level use) ESRI ArcGIS (ArcMap, ARC/INFO) advanced users ESRI ArcIMS (Internet Map Server) (www.esri.com) GRASS (public domain software) Autodesk Map2000, Intergraph GeoMedia Opensource GIS packages]]>

Google Map + Google Earth: 

<![CDATA[ Google Map + Google Earth Google Map API – combine Your own data]]>


<![CDATA[ [maps.a9.com] [virtualearth.msn.com] ]]>

Limitations of GIS: 

<![CDATA[ Limitations of GIS Communication Gaps between epidemiologists & spatial professionals Require uniform data standards Eg. Address recording 1/32 Main St. or Unit 1 32 Main St. Unit record data access Consistent and meaningful areal units Enable consistency & comparison Privacy issues and spatial aggregation]]>


<![CDATA[ Summary GIS can provides spatial dimension to epidemiological research (visualization, modeling…). GIS can be used for many public heath applications and services. (efficient allocation of health care resources, equity in accessibility to services…) Internet GIS can provide the public health information in real-time. (evaluation, decision support systems, emergency response…)]]>

GIS Sources for Public Health: 

<![CDATA[ GIS Sources for Public Health ESRI http://www.esri.com/industries/health/index.html Books: GIS and Public Health by Ellen Cromley and Sara McLafferty. The Guilford Press. 2002. Internet GIS by Zhong-Ren Peng and Ming-Hsiang Tsou. Wiley, 2003. GIS for Health and Human Services , Laura Lang, ESRI press.]]>

GIS course in Geography, SDSU: 

<![CDATA[ GIS course in Geography, SDSU GEOG 381 (Computerized Map Design) GEOG 484 (Intro GIS) GEOG 581 (Cartographic Design) http://map.sdsu.edu/geog581 GEOG 584 (Intermediate GIS) GEOG 583 (Internet Mapping) http://map.sdsu.edu/geog583 PPT slides: http://map.sdsu.edu/publications/2005GISpublichealthtsou.ppt ]]>

FutureWireless Mobile GIS: 

<![CDATA[ Future Wireless Mobile GIS]]>

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