Personality : By Manjiri Shanbhag Personality What does Personality mean?
‘ Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that
determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological
behavior (thoughts, feeling & actions) of people that have continuity
in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of
the social and biological pressures of the moment’
Several aspects of this definition need to be considered:
1. First aspect – Relative stability of chracteristics
2. Second aspect – Commonalities & Differences Types Of Personality : By Manjiri Shanbhag Types Of Personality 1. Type A & Type B Personality; 2. Introvert & Extrovert Personality
Type A Personality
Is restless, so that he always moves, walks & eats rapidly
Is impatient with the pace of things
Does several things at once
Schedules more & more
Does not have time to relax & enjoy life
Type B Personality
– More relaxed, sociable & balanced outlook of life
- Hardworking but feel no pressing conflict with people or time Slide 3: By Manjiri Shanbhag 2. Introvert & Extrovert Personalities
Basically shy, prefer to be alone & have difficulty in communicating.
Are quite, introspective, well-ordered, emotionally unexpressive & value oriented
Prefers small groups of intimate friends & plans well ahead
- are outgoing, objective, aggressive & relate well with people
- sociable, lively, impulsive, seeking novelty & change, carefree &
emotionally expressive Major contributing factors to Personality : By Manjiri Shanbhag Major contributing factors to Personality Major contributing factors to Personality : By Manjiri Shanbhag HEREDITY-
Heredity refers to factors that were determined at conception
These are the characteristics that are generally considered to be imported completely or substantially from one’s parents. For eg. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, temperament, biological rhythms etc.
The role of heredity on personality development is still an unsettled area of understanding.
This is a broad term and includes factors such as culture which influences norms, attitudes and values that are passed along from one generation to the next and creates consistencies over time.
Every culture has its own subcultures, each with its own views about such qualities as moral values and standards, cleanliness, and definition of success.
Although culture has significant influences on personality development, a linear relationship cannot be established between personality and the given culture for two reasons:
The cultural impacts upon an individual are not uniform, because they are transmitted by certain people-parents and others-who are not at all alike in their values and practices, and
The individual has some experiences that are unique. Each individual reacts in his or her own way to social pressures, the differences in behavior being caused by biological factors. Major contributing factors to Personality Major contributing factors to Personality : By Manjiri Shanbhag Major contributing factors to Personality FAMILY-
The family has considerable influence on personality development, particularly in the early stages.
The process can be examined from three different perspectives:
Identification can be viewed as the similarity of the behavior (including feelings and attributes) between child and model
Identification can be looked as the child’s motive or desire to be like the model
Identification can be viewed as the process through which the child actually takes on the attributes of the model
The identification process is fundamental to the understanding of personality development
Socialization involves the process by which a person acquires, from the enormously wide range of behavioral potentialities at are open to an individual
This process involves the organizations and groups
Situations seem to differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behavior. Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Personality Theories Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Psychoanalytic Theory-
This theory was developed by Sigmund Freud, in his 40 years of writing and clinical practice
The first comprehensive personality theory
A method for treating neurotic ills, and
An extensive body of clinical observations based on his therapeutic experiences and self-analysis
Freud associated the mind as an ice-berg where in only a small portion is visible which represents the conscious experience and the other major mass below water level represents unconscious. This unconscious mind is a storehouse of impulses, passions, and primitive instincts that affect our thoughts and behavior
Freud sought to explore this unconscious mind, and he did so by the method of free association.
Freud saw personality as being composed of three elements- id, ego and super ego
This tripartite division of personality is know an structural model of mental life
He insisted that these structures be considered as hypothetical contrcuts, since the field of neuro-anatomy was not sufficiently advanced to locate them within the central nervous system
- The Id- According to Freud, the Id employs to rid the personality of tension: reflex actions and primary process. Personality Theories Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Personality Theories Contd…
Psychoanalytic Theory –
The Ego – Ego is making you realize the reality. Mental images cannot satisfy your needs, as
such the reality and existence must be considered. Ego is developed from the id due to the
necessity to deal with reality. For eg, if you show images of food items to a starving man he
will never be satisfied. The tension of hunger will be reduced only by having food.
The Super Ego – This is third part of the personality, representing your internal representation
of values, beliefs and morals of the society as learned from your parents when you were child.
To function constructively in the society, you should acquire system of values, norms, ethics,
and attitudes which must be compatible with the society. The super ego judges whether an
action is right or wrong as per the standards raised by the society.
As such the id seeks pleasure, the ego tests the reality and the super ego strives for perfection.
Freud believed that the conflict between the id impulses-primarily sexual and aggressive
instincts-and the restraining influences of the ego and the super ego constituted the motivating
sources of personality
This study contributed to four areas:
Creative Behavior; ii. Dissatisfaction; iii. Group Development; iv. Leadership and influence
However, since id, ego, super ego are primarily ‘ black-box’ explanation of human beings, as such
the theory fails to reflect the human personality and behavior. This is the criticism which this
theory faces. Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Social Learning Theory –
The social learning theories of personality consider human behavior as an important behavior. It focuses on the behavior patterns and cognitive activities in relation to the specific conditions that evoke, maintain or modify them. This behavior is emphasized by the human behavior in a particular situation
There are two ways of learning : 1. through reinforcement, direct experience and
2. learning by observing others, which is called Vicarious learning.
Some of the personal variables that determine what an individual will do in a particular situation include the following:
Competencies- intelligence ability, social skills, other abilities.
Cognitive Strategies- Habitual ways of selectively attending to information and organising meaningful units.
Outcome expectations- Expectations about the consequences of different behaviors and the meaning of certain stimuli
Subjective value outcome- Different individuals behaving differently in the same situations
Self regulatory systems and plans- Individual differences in self-imposed goals, rules guiding behavior, self-imposed rewards for success or punishment for failure, and ability to plan and execute steps leading to a goal will lead to differences in behavior.
All these variables interact with the conditions of a particular situation to determine what an individual
will do in that situation
The social learning theorist have been criticized for over-emphasizing the importance of situational factors in behavior to the neglect of individual differences.
An individual is regarded as flexible, malleable, and passive victim of external stimuli-the permanent pawn of environmental fate. Environmental conditions are held to be superior to human nature. Personality Theories Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Personality Theories Self Concept Theory –
Carl Rogers and Abrham Maslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality.
Rogers Self Concept theory – This approach to personality is described as phenomenological, which is the study of the individual’s subjective experience, feeling, and private concepts as well as his views of the world and self. The behavior is dependent on how we perceive the world, that is the behavior is a result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. Such an approach to personality emphasizes the self and its characteristics. This is often referred to as self theory personality because the best vantage point for understanding behavior is from the internal frame of reference of the individual himself.
Basic to Rogers’ personality theory are two concept theory: self and self-actualization.
The self consist of all the ideas, perceptions and values that characterize ‘I’ or ‘Me’; it includes
the awareness ‘What I am’ and ‘What I can do’. Self-concept denotes the individual’s conception
of the person he is. It is one’s image of oneself. This perceived (self-concept) influences both the
person’s perception of the world and his own behavior.
Self-actualization is the basic motivating force representing the inherent tendency of the
organism to develop all its capabilities in ways which serve to maintain or enhance the person.
Central to the humanistic approach are the following concepts:
An individual is an integrated whole,
Animal research is irrelevant to human behavior,
Human nature is essentially good,
Man has creative potential, and
Psychological health of man is most important Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Trait Theory –
A personality trait is understood as being an enduring attribute of a person that apprears consistently in a variety of situations. A trait differentiates one from another in a relatively permanent or consistent way. This is abstract from an individual’s behavior and serves as an useful ‘ unit of analysis’ to understand personality.
There are two ways of analyzing personality traits:
(i) the person describes himself by answering questions about this attitudes, feelings, and behaviors;
(ii) someone else evaluates the person’s traits either from what he knows about the individual or from direct observations of behavior.
With the first method, a personality inventory is most often used, whereas the second usually involves using a rating scale. This is essentially a questionnaire in which the person reports reactions or feelings in certain situations. A personality inventory asks the same questions of each person, and the answers are usually given in a form that can be easily rated. This inventory is to measure a single dimension of personality or several personality traits simultaneously.
A rating scale is a device for recording judgment about a trait. The rating scale is filled up by someone else by what he or she knows about the individual or by studying his or her behavior in certain situations.
- A major objection to trait theories is that they are very descriptive rather than analytical and are a long way from being comprehensive theories of personality. Behavior cannot be explained by trait theory. Personality Theories Personality Dimensions : By Manjiri Shanbhag Personality Dimensions Authoritarianism –
Is a concept developed by psychologist Adorno during World War II to measure susceptibility to autocratic, fascist, or anti-democratic appeals. Since then the concept has been extended to the authoritarian personality, a generic term used to describe an individual who has strong belief in the legitimacy of established mechanisms of formal authority, views obedience to authority as necessary, exhibits a negative philosophy of people, adheres to conventional and traditional value systems, is intellectually rigid and opposes the use of subjective feelings.
This is a term derived from the writings of Nicoli Machiavelli, which refers to individual’s propensity to manipulate people. Machiavellians would be prone to participate in organizational politics. They are also adept at interpersonal game-playing, power tactics, and identifying influence systems in organizations.
Locus of Control-
Refers to an individual’s belief that events are either within one’s control (internal locus of control) or are determined by forces beyond one’s control (external locus of control). These traits are manifested in different behaviors which are significant to managers.