natural vegetation and wild life

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Tropical evergreen forests Tropical deciduous forests DRY DECIDUOUS FORESTS MOIST DECIDUOUS FORESTS Tropical thorn forests and scrubs Montane forests Mangrove forests TYPES OF VEGETATION

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01. NAME OF THE VEGETATION: Tropical Evergreen Forests CLIMATIC CONDITIONS: Restricted to heavy rainfall, warm and wet throughout the year RAINFALL : More than 200cm FLORA: Ebony,mahogany,rosewood,rubber’cinchona FAUNA: Elephants,monkey,lemur,bats,sloth,scorpions,snails, one horned rhinoceros PLACE : Western ghats,lakshadweep,andaman and nicobar , tamil nadu coast, upper parts of Assam. ALSO KNOWN AS : Tropical Rain Forest

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ebony

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Indian rosewood Cinchona tree

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Rubber tree in India

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NAME OF THE VEGETATION: Dry deciduous forests RAINFALL: 70-100cm FLORA: Teak , Sal, peepal, neem FAUNA: Deer, elephant, snakes, tortoises PLACE: Bihar and Uttar Pradesh

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khair kusum

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arjun mulberry

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teak shisham Sandal wood

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NAME OF THE VEGETATION: Moist deciduous forests RAINFALL: 100-200cm FLORA: Teak’bamboos,sal,shisam,sandalwood,khair,kusum’arjun’mulberry FAUNA: Lion , tiger , pig , lizards PLACE: Jharkand,west orissa,chattisgarh,eastern slopes of western Ghats

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peepal neem

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NAME OF THE VEGETATION: The Thorn And Scrub Forests RAIFALL: Less than 70cm FLORA: Acacias, palms, euphorbias, cacti FAUNA: Rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horses, camels PLACE: Gujarat Rajasthan madhyapradesh Chhattisgarh UttarPradesh Haryana

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NAME OF THE VEGETATION: Montane forests FLORA: Oaks, chesnuts , pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce, cedar FAUNA: Yak, snow leopard, sheep, goats, red panda, squirrels, rabbit, jack PLACES: Southern and north-east India

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Chestnut tree Oak tree

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Pine Deodar

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Silver Fir Spruce

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Junipers Brich

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Pine Silver fir

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NAME OF THE VEGETATION : Mangrove Forests SOIL: Mud and silt accumulate because of the rivers FLORA: Sundari trees, palm, coconut, keora, agar. FAUNA: Royal Bengal tiger, turtle, crocodiles, gharials, snakes PLACE: The deltas of Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, kaveri.

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Wild Life In India The wildlife of India is a mix of species of number of different types of organism. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in 89 national parks, 13 Bio reserves and 400+ wildlife sanctuaries across the country. Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species. According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity.

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Year Name of the bio-reserve Location State Type Area (km ²) 1 2008 Great Rann of Kutch Part of Kutch , Rajkot and Surendranagar Districts Gujarat Desert 12454 2 1989 Gulf of Mannar Indian part of Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka Tamil Nadu Coasts 10500 3 1989 Sunderbans Part of delta of Ganges and Barahamaputra river system West Bengal Gangetic Delta 9630 4 1988 Nanda Devi Parts of Chamoli District , Pithoragarh District & Bageshwar District Uttarakhand West Himalayas 5860 5 1986 Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Part of Waynad , Nagarhole , Bandipur and Mudumalai , Nilambur , Silent Valley and Siruvani Hills Tamil Nadu , Kerala and Karnataka Western Ghats 5520 6 1998 Dehang Debang Part of Siang and Dibang Valley Arunachal Pradesh East Himalayas 5112 7 1999 Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Parts of Betul District , Hoshangabad District and Chhindwara District Madhya Pradesh Semi-Arid 4926

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Year Name of the bio- reserve Location State Type Area (km²) 8 1994 Simlipal Part of Mayurbhanj district Orissa Deccan Peninsula 4374 9 2005 Achanakamar - Amarkantak Part of Annupur , Dindori and Bilaspur districts Madhya Pradesh , Chattisgarh Maikala Range 3835 10 1989 Manas Part of Kokrajhar , Bongaigaon , Barpeta , Nalbari , Kamrup and Darrang Districts Assam East Himalayas 2837 11 2000 Kanchanjunga Parts of Kanchanjunga Hills Sikkim East Himalayas 2620 12 2001 Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve Neyyar , Peppara and Shenduruny Wildlife Sanctuary and their adjoining areas Kerala , Tamil Nadu Western ghats 1828 13 1989 Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve Southern most islands of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands Islands 885

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Year Name of the bio-reserve Location State Type Area (km²) 14 1988 Nokrek Part of Garo Hills Meghalaya East Himalayas 820 15 1997 Dibru-Saikhowa Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts Assam East Himalayas 765 16 2009 Cold Desert Pin Valley National Park and surroundings;Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife Sancturary Himachal Pradesh Western Himalayas 7770 17 2010 Seshachalam Hills Seshachalam Hill Ranges covering parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts Andhra Pradesh Eastern Ghats 4755.997

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