MIS

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MIS:

MIS UNIT 1

Role of Information & Technology:

Role of Information & Technology The speed with which Information Technology (IT) and Information Systems (IS) are changing our lives is amazing. Only 50 years ago communication was almost limited to the telephone, the first word processors came out in the mid-sixties and the fax entered our offices in the 1970's.

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The term information technology (IT) represents the various types of hardware and software used in an information system, including computers and networking equipment. The goal of Information System (IS) is to enable managers to make better decisions by providing quality information.

Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom :

Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom Let us consider the case of a retail store that is trying to increase sales. Some of the data available includes sales levels for the last 36 months, advertising expenses, and customer comments from surveys. The resulting information (presented in equations, charts, and tables) would clarify relationships among the data and would be used to decide how to proceed It requires knowledge to determine how to analyze data and make decisions.

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Education and experience create knowledge in humans. A manager learns which data to collect, the proper models to apply, and ways to analyze results for making better decisions. Wisdom is more difficult to define but represents the ability to learn from experience and adapt to changing conditions. In this example, wisdom would enable a manager to spot trends, identify potential problems, and develop new techniques to analyze the data.

Characteristics of Information :

Characteristics of Information • Timeliness: Information must reach the user in a timely manner, just when it is needed; not too early, because by the time it is used it would be out-of-date; not too late because the user will not be able to incorporate it into his/her decision-making. • Appropriateness: Information must be relevant to the person who is using it. It must be within the sphere of his/her activities so that it can be used to reduce uncertainty in his/her decision-making. • Accuracy: Accuracy costs. We don't always need 100% accurate information so long as we know the degree of accuracy it represents (eg: + or - 5%). (Remember the value of information). • Conciseness: Information should always contain the minimum amount of detail that is appropriate for the user. Too much detail causes information overload.

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• Frequency: Frequency is related to timeliness. Too often the information presented is linked to the calendar (end of the week, beginning of the month); its frequency should be synchronized with the timing of the decision making of the user. • Understandability: The format and presentation of information are very important. Some people prefer tabular information, whereas others may need it in a graphical form. Also the use of colors enhances the understandability of what is presented. • Relevant: It pertains to the particular problem. What data is relevant depends on the decision-making model used. E.g. university admissions officials may choose to consider the results of some high-school test irrelevant, if they believe that it does not improve the chances of some applicant later becoming a successful student. • Complete: All the relevant parts are included. E.g. marketing data about household incomes may lead to bad decisions, if not accompanied by consumption habits of the target population. • Current: Decisions are often based on the latest information available • Economical: The costs of gathering information should be justified by the overall benefits

Role of Information Technology :

Role of Information Technology Continues to advance at a rapid pace •Rate of advancement has slowed, doubling every 18 to 24 months •Has played a substantial role in most organizations •Has altered the concept of time and distance •May have implications for managers •May potentially impact society

What is a System? :

What is a System? A system is a group of interrelated components working together toward a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process. System will have the following basic interacting components (functions): 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Output 4. Feedback 5. Control

Information System:

Information System It is a combination of Software, hardware and people ware. An information system differs from other kinds of systems in that its objective is to monitor/document the operations of some other system, which we can call a target system. An information system cannot exist without such a target system. For example, production activities would be the target system for a production scheduling system, human resources in the business operations would be the target system of a human resource information system, and so on.

Components of an IS :

Components of an IS Data - Input that the system takes to produce information • Hardware - Computer itself and its peripheral equipment: input, output, storage devices; includes data communication equipment • Software - Sets of instructions that tell the computer how to input, process, output and store data • Communication networks - Hardware and software specializing in transmission and reception of electronic data • People - IS professionals and users who design, construct, operate and maintain IS • Procedures - Rules to process data, e.g. priorities in running different applications, security measures, routines for malfunctioning IS, etc.

Environment :

Environment Input Process Output Feed Back Organization of IS Customers Suppliers Regulatory agencies Stock holders Competitors

Business Perspective of IS :

Business Perspective of IS Organizations–We must understand the nature, the purpose, and the structure of the organizations that will use the IS. •People–We must understand how they use the IS, why they use the IS, and it affects their jobs and daily activities. •Technology–We must understand the capabilities, limitations, and functionality if the technology that underlies the IS.

MIS:

MIS The concept of the MIS has evolved over a period of time comprising many different facets of the organizational function. MIS is a necessity of all the organizations. The initial concept of MIS was to process data from the organization and present it in the for of reports at regular intervals. The system was largely capable of handling the data from collection to processing.

MIS DEFINITION:

MIS DEFINITION The MIS has more than one definition, some of which are give below. 1. The MIS is defined as a system which provides information support for decision making in the organization. 2. The MIS is defined as an integrated system of man and machine for providing the information to support the operations, the management and the decision making function in the organization. 3. The MIS is defined as a system based on the database of the organization evolved for the purpose of providing information to the people in the organization. 4. The MIS is defined as a Computer based Information System.

Why MIS?:

Why MIS? In order to get a better grip on the activity of information processing, it is necessary to have a formal system which should take care of the following points:  Handling of a voluminous data.  Confirmation of the validity of data and transaction.  Complex processing of data and multidimensional analysis.  Quick search and retrieval.  Mass storage.  Communication of the information system to the user on time.  Fulfilling the changing needs of the information.

MIS: A SUPPORT TO THE MANAGEMENT:

MIS: A SUPPORT TO THE MANAGEMENT Steps in management Decision Planning A selection from various alternatives strategies, resources, methods, etc. Organization A selection of a combination out of several combinations of the goals, people, resources, method, and authority. Staffing Providing a proper manpower complement. Directing Choosing a method from the various methods of directing the efforts in the organization. Coordinating Choice of the tools and the techniques for coordinating the efforts for optimum results. Controlling A selection of the exceptional conditions and the decision guidelines.

Business Trends :

Business Trends Changing business environment– Specialization– Management by Methodology and Franchises–Object Orientation– Decentralization and Small Business–Temporary Workers– Internationalization– Service-Oriented Business– Re-engineering- Need for faster responses and flexibility

Business Trends & Implications :

Business Trends & Implications •Specialization –Increased demand for technical skills –Specialized MIS tools –Increased communication •Methodology & Franchises –Reduction of middle management –Increased data sharing –Increased analysis by top management –Computer support for rules –Re-engineering •Decentralization & Small Business –Communication needs –Lower cost of management tasks –Low maintenance technology

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•Temporary Workers –Managing through rules –Finding and evaluating workers –Coordination and control –Personal advancement through technology –Security •Internationalization –Communication –Product design –System development and programming –Sales and marketing •Service Orientation –Management jobs are information jobs –Customer service requires better information –Speed

Role of MIS in decision making:

Role of MIS in decision making The word decision is derived from the Latin root decido, meaning to cut off. The concept of decision, therefore, is settlement, a fixed intention bringing to a conclusive result, a judgment, and a resolution. A decision is the choice out of several options made by the decision maker to achieve some objective in a given situation.

The major characteristics of the business decision making are::

The major characteristics of the business decision making are: (a) Sequential in nature . (b) Exceedingly complex due to risks and trade offs. (c) Influenced by personal vales (d) Made in institutional settings and business environment.

Decision making and MIS:

Decision making and MIS Decision making is the process of selecting the most desirable or optimum alternative to solve a problem or achieve an objective. The quality and soundness of managerial decisions is largely contingent upon the information available to the decision-maker. Gorry and Scott Morton (1971) classified decision making on three levels of a continuum:

Components:

Components Strategic decisions are future-oriented because of uncertainty. They are part of the planning activity. · Tactical decision making combines planning activities with controlling. It is for short-term activities and associated allocation of resources to them to achieve the objectives. · Technical decision making is a process of ensuring efficient and effective implementation of specific tasks.

Elements of decision making :

Elements of decision making The four components of the decision making process are (Burch and Strater, 1974): · Model A model is an abstract description of the decision problem. The model may be quantitative or qualitative. · Criteria The criteria must state how goals or objectives of the decision problem can be achieved. When there is a conflict between different criteria, a choice has to be made through compromise. · Constraints. Constraints are limiting factors which define outer limits and have to be respected while making a decision. For example, limited availability of funds is a constraint with which most decision makers have to live. · Optimization Once the decision problem is fully described in a model, criteria for decision making stipulated and constraints identified, the decision-maker can select the best possible solution.

Types of the MIS:

Types of the MIS MIS can be categorized (Mason, 1981) as follows:

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· Databank information systems refer to creation of a database by classifying and storing data which might be potentially useful to the decision-maker. The information provided by the databank is merely suggestive. The decision-maker has to determine contextually the cause and effect relationships. MIS designs based on the databank information system are better suited for unstructured decisions. · Predictive information systems provide source and data along with predictions and inferences. The decision-maker can also enquire as to 'what if a certain action is taken?' and whether the underlying assumptions are true. This type of MIS is useful for semi-structured decisions.

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· Decision-making information systems provide expert advice to the decision-maker either in the form of a single recommended course of action or as criteria for choice, given the value system prevailing in the organization. The decision-maker has just to approve, disapprove or modify the recommendation. Decision-making information systems are suitable for structured decisions. Operations research and cost-effectiveness studies are examples of decision-making information systems. · Decision-taking information systems integrate predictive information and decision-making systems.

Number system:

Number system Five types of data stored and processed by computers Text consists of strings of characters Numbers Audio Pictures Video

No system:

No system Decimal no Binary Octal hexadecimal

No system:

No system The digit itself The position of the digit in the number The base or radix of the number system

binary:

binary O & 1

Octal :

Octal O,1,2,3,4,5,6 & 7

Hexa decimal:

Hexa decimal 0 to 9, A, B, C, D,E & F

Software and hardware:

Software and hardware Software refers to the set of computer programs, procedures and associated documentation related to the effective operation of the data processing unit system. There are two types of software:- System software and Application software.

System software:

System software System management programs- OS, DBMS, Telecommunication and operating environment packages System support programs- system utilities, system performance and system security monitor System development programs- programming languages, translators, editors & debuggers, program generators and CASE packages.

Application software:

Application software General purpose- word processing, Electronic spreadsheet, database mgt, graphics, integrated package development Application specific programs- accounting, marketing, manufacturing, finance, engineering, education etc.

Languages:

Languages Low level language High level language 4 GL/ 5GL Assembly language Machine language

Operating system:

Operating system The OS act as an intermediary between the user and the computer. It is a program that controls the operation of various computer resources. It contains modules that govern the control of equipment resources such as processor, primary storage, secondary storage, input/output devices and files.

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File mgt Memory mgt Process mgt Device mgt