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Its structure and processes. How does it function. How does it affect individual members. How does it affect organisation. Reasons for joining groups1. security: group reduces insecurity and standing alone syndrome. : Reasons for joining groups1. security: group reduces insecurity and standing alone syndrome. 2. Status : recognition and status same as that of group : 2. Status : recognition and status same as that of group 3. Self-Esteem: Self importance : 3. Self-Esteem: Self importance 4.Affiliation: Fulfills need of affection : 4.Affiliation: Fulfills need of affection 5. Power: There is power in number : 5. Power: There is power in number 6. Goal achievement: pool of talent, skills and knowledege : 6. Goal achievement: pool of talent, skills and knowledege THEORIES : THEORIES Based on spatial/geographical proximity. Balance theory Individual X individual Y Individual Z Exchange theory( cost & reward) STAGES OF GROUP FORMATION : STAGES OF GROUP FORMATION STAGE -I FORMING: CONFUSION- not certain about purpose, task and leadership. Slide 13: STAGE II STORMING: conflict and confrontation(disagreements). Slide 14: STAGE III NORMING: settling down, coop, collaboration Slide 15: STAGE IV PERFORMING: group fully functional, devoted to task at hand. Slide 16: STAGE V ADJOURNING: end of group/ new modified group happy sad depressed TYPES OF GROUPS : TYPES OF GROUPS FORMAL & INFORMAL GROUPS Formal Informal Slide 18: Command & Task groups Interest & Friendship groups coalitions FACTORS AFFECTING GROUP PERFORMANCE : FACTORS AFFECTING GROUP PERFORMANCE COMPOSITION SIZE NORMS COHESIVENESS COMPOSITION : COMPOSITION Heterogeneous group with diverse abilities and information more effective. Effective outcome with heterogeneous group in terms of gender, personality, opinions, skills and perspective. More conflict laden and less expedient- more deliberate. Cultural diversity useful when diversity of view points are required. However, culturally diverse group have difficulty in learning. Slide 21: Contd.. Common demographic attributes like age, sex, race, education level strength of service in organisation result in better outcome. Composition of a group acts as a predictor of turn over. Groups which have cohorts( persons with common attributes) are likely to perform better. SIZE : SIZE Does the size of a group affect the group’s overall behaviour? YES For completion of a particular task( something productive)- smaller group but for problem solving a larger group more effective. Social loafing effect more people individual effort less. Individual becomes a free rider. Preferable to have odd number. NORMS : NORMS What do they mean? All groups have norms. These are acceptable standards of behaviour that are shared by group members. These define what ought/ought not to be done by members. When accepted and agreed upon by members these act as behaviour influencing parameters for conduct without outside control. Norms differ group to group. These could be formally or informally laid down. Common classes of norms : Common classes of norms Performance norms: laid down parameters as to how hard a person is required to work, what production level to achieve and so on. Appearance norms: dress, seeming to look for a new job etc. Arrangement norms: basically applicable to informal groups. These laid down degree of social interaction. In essence participative social activities. Allocation of resources norms: these could include pay, bonus, tools equipment, assignment of difficult jobs etc. HOW’S & WHY’S OF NORMS : HOW’S & WHY’S OF NORMS HOW Norms normally develop in one or more ways: Explicit statement by manager: no personal calls during working hours. Critical events in group’s history: monitoring each other, eg: accident. Primacy: the first behaviour pattern that emerges sets the norms. My seat, my friend etc. Carry over behaviour: what one followed. Slide 26: WHY It facilitate group survival- as group they don’t want to fail and forbid interference from other groups. It increases the predictability of group members predictability of behaviour. It reduces embarrassing inter personal problems of group members. It allows group members to express the central values of the group and clarify. Any questions? : Any questions? Thank you : Thank you You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.