Chap05b-Attitude & Scaling

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

hi

Comments

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Attitude Measurement

The concept of measurement and scaling : 

The concept of measurement and scaling Measurement can be defined as a standardized process of assigning numbers or other symbols to certain characteristics of the objects of interest Researchers engage in using the measurement process by assigning either numbers or labels To People’s thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and characteristics The features or attributes of objects The aspects of concepts / ideas Any type of phenomenon or event using specific rules to represent quantities and qualitative of the factors being investigated

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Measurement process consists of Construct development Scale measurement The goal of construct development is to precisely identify and what is to be measured, including any dimensionality traits The goal of scale measurement is to determine how to precisely measure each construct

PowerPoint Presentation: 

TO UNDERSTAND CONSTRUCT DEVELOPMENT AND SCALE DEVELOPMENT, WE MUST UNDERSTAND THE TERM OBJECT The term object refers to any tangible item in a person’s environment that can be clearly and easily identified through the senses (sight, sound, touch, smell, taste) It has two properties: Objective properties: Researchers do not measure the objects per se but rather the elements that makes up the object Objective properties are used to identify and distinguish an object from another These properties represent attributes that make up an object of interest and are directly observable, physically verifiable, and measurable in nature, such as the physical and demographic characteristics of a person (age, sex, occupation status, color of eye etc.,) Or the actual number of purchases made of a particular product, or the tangible features of the object ( horsepower, style, color, stereo system of an automobile, etc.)

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Subjective properties: Subjective Properties Are Abstract, Intangible Characteristics That Can Not Be Directly Observed Or Measured Because They Are The Mental Images (Aspects) A Person Attaches To An Object, Such As Attitudes, Feelings, Perceptions, Expectations, Or Expressions Of Future Actions (I.E., Purchase Intentions) Construct development can be viewed as an integrative process in which researchers focus their efforts on identifying the subjective properties for which data should be collected for solving the defined research problem

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Examples concrete features and abstract constructs of an object air plane concrete properties : no. Of engines heights weight length seating capacity physical characteristics of seats type of airplane abstract constructs : quality of in flight comfortability of seats smoothness of take-off and landing etc. Consumer concrete properties : age, sex, marital status, income, brand last purchased, rupee amount of purchases types of products purchased color of eyes and hair abstract properties : attitudes towards a product brand loyalty high involvement purchases emotions (love, fear, anxiety etc) intelligence, personality, risk taker organization concrete properties : name of comp. No. Of employees total assets type and no. Of product offerings abstract properties : competence of employees quality control, channel power, competitive advantage, company image, consumer oriented practices etc

Scale measurement:: 

Scale measurement: Scaling is the process of creating a continuum on which objects are located according to the amount of the measured characteristic they process Scale development is designing questions to measure the subjective properties of an object There are several types of scales, each of which possesses different characteristic The characteristics of a scale determine the scale’s level of measurement

Characteristics of scales: 

Characteristics of scales Description Order Distance Origin

Description:: 

Description: Description refers to use of a unique descriptor, or label, to stand for each designation in the scale When activated, this property allows a researcher to take the responses and categorize them into mutually exclusive groups each with its own identity Any descriptor can be used for response For instance, “yes” or “no”, “agree” or “disagree” and the number of years of a respondent’s age are descriptors of a simple scale All scales include description in the form of characteristic labels that identify what is being measured

Order: 

Order Order refers to the relative sizes of the descriptors or relative magnitude between the descriptors, or labels, used as scale points Here the key word is “relative’ and includes such descriptors as “greater than,” “less than” and “equal to”. Example: “1 is less than 5” “Extremely satisfied” is more intense than “somewhat satisfied” “Most important” has greater importance than “only slightly important”

PowerPoint Presentation: 

When order characteristic is incorporated into set of scale points, it allows the researcher to establish either a “highest to lowest” or “lowest to highest” rank order among the new responses Order identifies only the relative differences between the responses and not the absolute differences Not all scales possess order characteristics. For instance, is a ‘buyer’ greater than or less than a ‘non-buyer’? We have no way of making a relative size distinction

Distance:: 

Distance: A scale has the characteristic of distance when absolute differences between the descriptors are known and may be expressed in units The respondent who buys three bottles of diet cola buys more than the one who buys only one bottle A three car family owns a one more automobile than a two car family Note that when the characteristic of distance exists, we are also given the order. We know not only that the three car family has “more than” the number of cars of the two car family, but we also know the distance between the two (1 car)

Origin:: 

Origin: A scale is said to have a characteristic of origin if there is a unique beginning or true zero point for the scale The origin property relates to a numbering system where zero is displayed or referenced starting point in a set of possible responses Normally, this scaling property is activated when researcher asks a specific question that requires a numerical response Zero is the origin for an age scale just as it is for number of miles traveled to the store Not all scales have a true zero point for the property they are measuring. In fact, many scales used by marketing researchers have arbitrary neutral points, but they do possess origins For instance, when a respondent says, “no opinion,” to a question” do you agree or disagree with the statement, “the indica is the best car in the small car segment on the road today”? We cannot say that the person has a true zero level of agreement

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Each scaling property builds on the previous one This implies: Any scale will have description property A scale that includes order property automatically possesses description property A scale having distance property, it has order and description properties The scale that is build on origin property also have description, order, and distance properties

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Nominal scale Nominal scales are defined as those that use only label; That is, they possess only the characteristic of description The response does not include any level of intensity Examples include: Designations as to race, relegion, Type of dwelling, Gender, Brand last purchased, Answers that involve yes-no, agree-disagree; Or any other instance in which descriptors can not be differentiated except qualitatively. If one describe respondents in a survey according to their occupation—banker, doctor, computer programmer—one has used a nominal scale

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Nominal- scaled questions Check all the brands you would consider purchasing Sony Videocon Samsung Lg Do you agree or disagree that “delta is ready when you are”? Agree disagree Which of the following supermarkets have you shopped in the last 30 days? Ebony Star mall Sab mall Migros Sahara mall Do you like or dislike chocolate ice cream? Like Dislike

Ordinal scale: 

Ordinal scale An ordinal scale is obtained by ranking objects or arranging them in order with regard to some common variable The question is simply whether each object has more or less than some other object The scale provides information as to how much difference there is between the objects It permits the researcher to rank order the respondents or their responses The researcher can rank order the responses into hierarchical pattern This scale does not allow a researcher to determine the absolute difference in any of the ordinal relationships

Examples of ordinal- scaled questions: 

Examples of ordinal- scaled questions Please rank each brand in terms of your preference. Please place”1” by your first choice, a “2” by your second choice, and so on Sony Onida Konka Lg Bpl Phillips Which one category best describes your knowledge about the assortment of services offered by your main hcp? Complete knowledge of services Good knowledge of services Basic knowledge of services Little knowledge of services No knowledge of services

PowerPoint Presentation: 

We would like to know your preferences for actually using different banking methods. Among the listed methods below, please indicate your top three preferences using a “1” to represent your first choice, a “2” for second and a “3” for your third choice methods (Please write the numbers on the lines next to your selected methods) ---- Inside the bank ---- bank by mail ---Drive in (drive-up) windows ----bank by telephone ---24 - hour atm ----bank by internet For each pair of retail discount stores, circle the store you would like to patronize? Ebony or nanz Sahara mall or ebony Sahara or nanz

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Which one statement best describes your opinion of the quality of an intel pentium 4 processor? Higher than amd’s athlon processor ABOUT THE SAME AS amd’s ATHLON PROCESSOR LOWER THAN amd’s ATHLON PROCESSOR

Interval scale : : 

Interval scale : Intertval scales are those in which the distance between each descriptor is known It demonstrates absolute differences between each scale point The distance is normally defined as one scale unit. For example, a coffee brand rated”3” in taste is one unit away from one rated “4”

PowerPoint Presentation: 

In an interval scale the numbers used to rank the objects also represent equal increments of the attribute being measured. This means that differences can be compared. The difference between 1 and 2 is same as between 2 and 3 but only half the difference between 2 and 4 The location of zero point is not fixed, since zero does not denote the absence of the attribute Both zero point and units of measurement are arbitrary

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Some time a researcher must impose a belief that equal intervals exist between the descriptors. That is, if you were asked to evaluate a store’s sales people by selecting a single designation from the list of Extremely friendly Very friendly Some what friendly Some what unfriendly Very unfriendly Exremely unfriendly The researcher would probably assume that each designation was one unit away from the preceding one. In these cases we say that the scale is “assumed interval”

Interval – scaled questions: 

Interval – scaled questions Please rate each brand in terms of its overall performance Brand rating (circle one) Very poor very good Montblanc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Parker Cross Indicate your degree of agreement with folowing statementes by circling the appropriate number Statement strongly strongly agree disagree I always look for bargains 1 2 3 4 5 I enjoy being out doors 1 2 3 4 5 I love to cook 1 2 3 4 5 In a typical week (7 day period), how often you access internet from a home computer __More than 20 times ___11 to 15 times ___1 to 5 times ___16 to 20 times ___6 to 10 times ___do not access it

Ratio scale :: 

Ratio scale : Ratio scales are the ones in which true zero origin exists—such as actual number of purchases in a certain time period, rupees spent, miles traveled etc. This characteristic allow us to construct ratios when comparing the results of measurement One person may spend twice as much as another, or travel one third as far A ratio scale tends to be most sophisticated scale in the sense that it allows the researcher not only to identify the absolute differences between each scale point but also to make absolute comparisons between the responses

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Example: In collecting data about how many cars are driven by households in delhi, a researcher knows that difference between driving one car and driving three cars is always going to two Further more, when comparing a one – car family to three – car family will have significantly higher total car insurance and maintenance costs than a one – car family Such ratios are inappropriate for interval scales, so we are not allowed to say that one store was one half as friendly as another

Ratio-scaled questions : 

Ratio-scaled questions Please indicate your age --- Years APPROXIMATELY HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST MONTH HAVE YOU PURCHASED ANY THING OVER rs.1000 in value at nanz store? 0 1 2 3 4 5 more ( specify___) HOW MUCH DO YOU THINK A TYPICAL PURCHASER OF A rs. 5 lakh term life insurance policy pays per month that policy? Rs.__________ What is the probability that you will use a lawyer’s services when you are ready to make a will? ______Percent . Typically the issues like quantity sold, number of consumers, probability of purchase etc. Form ratio scale measurement

PowerPoint Presentation: 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCALES AND SCALING PROPERTIES SCALING PROPERTIES SCALE DESCRIPTION ORDER DISTANCE ORIGIN NOMINAL YES NO NO NO ORDINAL YES YES NO NO INTERVAL YES YES YES NO RATIO YES YES YES YES

Example of four basic types of question phrasings:: 

Example of four basic types of question phrasings: Information requirement: to determine how often customers use their primary automobile service provider’s facilities / servicesnominal question phrasing:when your vehicle requires maintenance service or you have problems, do you usually take the vehicle to your primary automobile service provider?The logical response to this question would be a yes or noordinal question phrasing: when your vehicle requires maintenance service or you have problems, how often do you take it to your primary automobile service provider? (Check only one response)the logical responses might be:__never __seldom __occasionally __usually __everytimeinterval question phrasing:since purchasing your vehicle, approximately how often have you used the services at your primary automobile service provider? (Check the one appropriate response)_less than 3 times _9 to 12 times _over 16 times_4 to 8 times _13 to 16 timesratio question phrasing:in the past 12 months, how many times did you take your vehicle for service or repairs to your primary automobile service provider?___No. Of times

PowerPoint Presentation: 

SCALE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS MARKETING EXAMPLES PERMISSIBLE STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVE INFERENTIAL NOMINAL NUMBERS IDENTIFY AND CLASSIFY OBJECTS BRAND NUMBERS, STORE TYPES PERCENTAGES Chi-SQUARE MODE BINOMIAL TEST ORDINAL NUMBERS INDICATE THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF THE OBJECTS BUT NOT THE MAGNITUDE OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THEM PREFERENCE RANKINGS, MARKET POSITION, SOCIAL CLASS PERCENTILE, RANK ORDER CORRELATION FRIEDMAN ANOVA MEDIAN INTERVAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OBJECTS CAN BE COMPARED; ZERO POINT IS ARBITRARY ATTITUDES, OPTIONS, INDEX NUMBERS RANGE PRODUCT MOMENT- CORRELATIONS MEAN t TESTS STANDARD DEVIATIONS ANOVA REGRESSION ANALYSIS FACTOR ANALYSIS RATIO ZERO POINT IS FIXED; RATIOS OF SCALE VALUES CAN BE COMPUTED AGE, INCOME, COSTS, SALES, MARKET SHARES GEOMETRIC MEAN COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION HARMONIC MEAN

Primary scales of measurement: 

Primary scales of measurement The scaling techniques The comparative scales The non – comparative scales Comparative scales involve the direct comparison of stimulus object It is a scale format that requires a judgment comparing one object, person, or concept against another on the scale For example, the respondents might be asked whether they prefer coke or pepsi Comparative scale data must be interpreted in relative terms and have only ordinal or rank order properties For this reason, comparative scaling is referred to as nonmetric scaling

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Noncomparative scales refer to a scale format that requires a judgment without reference to another object, person, or concept These scales are also referred to as monadic or metric scales The resulting data are generally assumed to be interval or ratio scaled For example, respondents may be asked to evaluate coke on a 1 to 6 preference scale (1= not at all preferred; 6 = greatly preferred)

Comparative scales:: 

Comparative scales : Paired comparison Rank order Constant sum Q-sort and other procedures

Non- comparative scales:: 

Non- comparative scales : Continuous rating scales Itemized rating scales Likert scale Semantic differential scale Stapel scale Thurstone scale

Paired comparison rating scale:: 

Paired comparison rating scale: This format creates a pre-selected group of traits, product characteristics, or features that are paired against one another into two groups Respondents are asked to select which in each pair is more important to them A respondent is presented with two objects and asked to select one according to some criterion The data obtained are ordinal in nature Paired comparison scales are frequently used when stimulus objects are physical products

Example:: 

Example: We going to present you with several pairs of traits associated with a salesperson’s on-the-job activities. For each pair, please indicate which trait you feel is more important for being a sales person a. TRUST b. COMPETENCE a. TRUST b. COMMUNICATION SKILLS a. TRUST b. PERSONAL SOCIAL SKILLS a. COMPETENCE b. COMMUNICATION SKILLS a. COMPETENCE b. PERSONAL SOCIAL SKILLS a. COMMUNICATION SKILLS b. PERSONAL SOCIAL SKILLS

Constant sum scale:: 

Constant sum scale : This scale provides a better perspective of distance between the points on a continuum. With this type of scale, the respondent is asked to divide or allocate a number of points, percentages, or rupees, usually a total sum of 100, to indicate the relative importance of the attitude being studied. The amounts that are allocated to each alternative indicate the ranks assigned to them by the respondents, but it also indicates the amount of difference the respondents set between each alternative.

Example:: 

Example: IF YOU HAD rs. 1000 to allocate to the following charitable organizations,how would you allocate your money? YOU MAY GIVE ALL YOUR RUPEES TO ANY ONE ORGANIZATION, BUT YOUR TOTAL MUST ADD UP TO rs. 1000. Indian red cross ____________ Indian cancer foundation ____________ Indian spastic society ____________ Cry Heart care foundation ____________ Old age home ____________

Importance of bathing soap attributes using a constant sum scale: 

Importance of bathing soap attributes using a constant sum scale INSTRUCTIONS BELOW ARE THE EIGHT ATTRIBUTES OF BATHING SOAPS. PLEASE ALLOCATE 100 POINTS AMONG THE ATTRIBUTES SO THAT YOUR ALLOCATION REFLECTS THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE YOU ATTACH TO EACH ATTRIBUTE. THE MORE POINTS AN ATTRIBUTES RECEIVES, THE MORE IMPORTANT IS. IF AN ATTRIBUTE IS NOT AT ALL IMPORTANT, ASSIGN IT ZERO POINTS. IF AN ATTRIBUTE IS TWICE AS IMPORTANT AS SOME OTHER ATTRIBUTE, IT SHALL RECEIVE TWICE AS MANY POINTS FORMS AVERAGE RESPONSES OF THREE SEGMENTS ATTRIBUTE SEGMENT I SEGMENT II SEGMENT III MILDNESS 8 2 4 LATHER 2 4 17 SHRINKAGE 3 9 7 PRICE 53 17 9 FRAGRANCE 9 0 19 PACKAGING 7 5 9 MOISTURIZING 5 3 20 CLEANING POWDER 13 60 15 SUM 100 100 100

Rank order scale:: 

Rank order scale : In this scale of measurement, the researcher uses ranking questions as these are construed to be a form of opinion questions in which respondent is asked to rank comparatively the items listed These allow the respondents to compare their own responses by indicating their first choice, second, third and fourth preferences and so forth, until all the responses are placed in a rank order Rank order scaling is commonly used to measure preferences for brands as well as attributes Rank order data are frequently obtained from respondents in conjoint analysis because rank – order scaling forces the respondent to discriminate among the stimulus objects

Example:questionnaire seeking data for a staff executive job description: 

Example:questionnaire seeking data for a staff executive job description In your job you may perform any of the seven roles listed here. Consider how much time you spend in each role. Then rank the roles from 1 to 7 in time spent on each. Write a '1' after that given the most time-- and a '7' after the least time. Coordinator _______________________ entrepreneur _______________________ expediter _______________________ expert _______________________ forecaster _______________________ innovator _______________________ integrator _______________________

PowerPoint Presentation: 

INSTRUCTIONS RANK THE VARIOUS BRANDS OF TOOTHPASTES IN ORDER OF PREFERENCE. BEGIN BY PICKING OUT THE ONE BRAND THAT YOU LIKE MOST ASSIGN IT A NUMBER 1. THEN FIND THE SECOND MOST PREFERRED BRAND AND ASSIGN IT A NUMBER 2. CONTINUE THE PROCEDURE UNTIL YOU HAVE RANKED ALL BRANDS OF TOOTHPASTE IN ORDER OF PREFERENCE. THE LEAST PREFERRED BRAND SHOULD BE ASSIGNED A RANK OF 10. NO TWO BRANDS SHOULD RECEIVE THE SAME RANK THE CRITERION OF PREFERENCE IS ENTIRELY UP TO YOU. THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWER. JUST TRY TO BE CONSISTENT BRAND RANK ORDER COLGATE ________ CREST ________ AIM ________ CLOSE-UP ________ PEPSODENT ________ ULTRA BRITE ________ PLUS WHITE ________ STRIPE ________ GLEEM ________ MACLEANS ________

Q-sort scaling: 

Q-sort scaling When the number of objects or characteristics that are to be rated or ranked is very large, it becomes rather tedious for the respondent to rank order or do a pair wise comparison. If a respondent is forced to do rank ordering or a pair wise comparison, a number of problems and biases creep into the study. To deal with such a situation, q-sort scaling process is used In q- sort scaling the respondents are asked to sort the various characteristics or objects that are being compared into various groups, such that the distribution of the number of objects or characteristics in each group follows a normal distribution

PowerPoint Presentation: 

For example take a case of a toy manufacturing company “funscool” developing a new product. After a brain storming session, the new product team has come up with a hundred different products, each with minor variations in the features, and wants to test and find out from the consumers which feature combination is the most preferred and will generate maximum sales

PowerPoint Presentation: 

The best scaling procedure that can be used in this context is q- sort scaling The procedure to be adopted is as follows : Each respondent is handed 100 cards, each containing a product with various features. The respondent is then asked to sort the cards into 12 different piles in such a way that one pile contains what they feel is the most preferred among the products that have been developed and another pile contains the least preferred of the products that have been developed. The other 10 piles will contain cards with products that vary gradually from those with higher preference to those with lower preference. The number of cards in each pile is normally distributed . In this particular case, only five cards can be placed in most and least preferred product piles. After placing all the cards in the piles, the respondent is asked to rank order only those products in the most preferred pile or in the top few sets of piles In q- sort scaling, a relatively large number of groups or piles should be used (10 or more). This increases the reliability or precision of the results

Non-comparative scaling techniques:: 

Non-comparative scaling techniques: One of the two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the other object in the stimulus set These consist of Continuous rating scales Itemized rating scales

Continuous rating scale:: 

Continuous rating scale: A scale measure that uses a scale point format that presents the respondent with some type of graphic continuum as the set of possible responses to a given question It also referred to as graphic rating scales Respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other

PowerPoint Presentation: 

The respondents are not restricted to selecting from marks previously set by the researcher The form of the continuous scale may vary considerably: The lines may be vertical or horizontal Scale points in the form of numbers or brief descriptions may be provided And if provided, scale points may be few or many Once the respondent has provided the ratings, the researcher divides the line into as many categories as desired and assigns scores based on categories into which the ratings fall

PowerPoint Presentation: 

These scores are treated as interval data Example: How would you rate ebony as a department store? Version 1 Probably the worst---------------i---------------------------------------probably the best Version 2 Probably the worst---------------i---------------------------------------probably the best 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Version 3 Very bad neither very good Good nor Bad Probably the worst---------------i---------------------------------------probably the best 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Itemized rating scale:: 

Itemized rating scale : The itemized rating scale is, perhaps, The most frequently used in marketing Research because of its simplicity and Its adaptability to most measurement situations This form of rating scale requires a responedent to indicate his or her Attitude by selecting a position on a Continuum that reflects a range of Possible views regarding an object The various positions on the continuum Are set up in a sequential order in Terms of the scale positions (in other Words, representing the degree of Attitude held) The scale positions are clearly marked With a descriptive statement of some kind

Types of itemized scales:: 

Types of itemized scales: Semantic differential scale Likert scale Stapel scale Thurstone scale

Semantic differential scale:: 

Semantic differential scale : A unique bipolar ordinal scale format that captures a person’s attitudes or feelings about a given object This type of scale is unique in its use of bipolar adjectives and adverbs (good/bad, like/dislike, competitive/noncompetitive, helpful/unhelpful, etc.) In semantic differential scale, the respondents are asked to express their feelings about whatever being evaluated by recording their responses on a scale of adjectives (such as strong -- mild), which are paired polar opposites .

The seven scale positions are intended to signify:: 

The seven scale positions are intended to signify: Extremely x Quite x Slightly x Neither x nor y ; Equally x and equally y Slightly y Quite y Extremely y

PowerPoint Presentation: 

This scale type is best for identifying a “ perceptual image profile” about the object or behavior of concern Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either A +3 to - 3 Or a 1 to 7 scale The resulting data are commonly analyzed through profile analysis Means or median values on each rating scale are calculated and compared by plotting statistical analysis This helps determine overall differences and similarities among the objects To assess the differences across the segments, the researcher can compare mean responses of different segments In cases where the researcher requires an overall comparison of objects, such as to determine store preferences, the individual items are summed to arrive at total score

It is widely used in comparing: 

It is widely used in comparing Brands Products Company images Develop advertising and promotional strategies New – product development studies

Example:: 

Example: INSTRUCTIONS THIS PART OF THE STUDY MEASURES WHAT CERTAIN DEPARTMENT STORES MEAN TO YOU BY HAVING YOU JUDGE THEM ON A SERIES OF DESCRIPTIVE SCALES BOUNDED AT EACH END BY ONE OF TWO BIPOLAR ADJECTIVES PLEASE MARK (X) THE BLANK THAT BEST INDICATE HOW ACCURATELY ONE OR THE OTHER ADJECTIVE DESCRIBES WHAT THE STORE MEANS TO YOU PLEASE BE SURE TO MARK EVERY SCALE, DO NOT OMIT ANY SCALE FORM HARRODS IS: POWERFUL -- -- -- -- -- -- --WEAK UNRELIABLE -- -- -- -- -- -- --RELIABLE MODERN -- -- -- -- -- -- --OLD FASHIONED COLD -- -- -- -- -- -- --WARM CAREFUL -- -- -- -- -- -- --CARELESS

PowerPoint Presentation: 

The actual design of a semantic differential scale can vary from situation to situation If a researcher is interested in developing a credibility scale that could be used by revlon to assess the credibility of sushmita sen as a spokesperson in tv or print advertisements for revlon brands of grooming products The researcher determines that the credibility construct consists of three factors Expertise Trustworthiness Attractiveness With each factor measured using a specific set of five bipolar scales

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Example of semantic differential scale format for sushmita sen as a credibility spokesperson Now with respect to sushmita sen as the spokesperson for revlon grooming products, we would like to know your opinion about the expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness that you believe she brings to the advertisement. Each dimension has five factors that may or may not represent your opinion For each listed factor, please check the point that best expresses your opinion about the factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 EXPERTISE: KNOWLEDGEABLE UNKNOWLEDGEABLE EXPERT NOT AN EXPERT SKILLED UNSKILLED QUALIFIED UNQUALIFIED EXPERIENCED INEXPERIENCED

PowerPoint Presentation: 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TRUST WORTHINESS: RELIABLE UNRELIABLE SINCERE INSINCERE TRUSTWORTHY UNTRUSTWORTHY DEPENDABLE UNDEPENDABLE HONEST DISHONEST ATTRACTIVENESS: SEXY NOT SEXY BEAUTIFUL UGLY ATTRACTIVE UNATTRACTIVE CLASSY NOT CLASSY ELEGANT PLAIN

A semantic differential scale for measuring : 

Self concepts Person concepts Product concepts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rugged delicate Excitable calm Uncomfortable comfortable Dominating submissive Thrifty indulgent Pleasant unpleasant Contemporary non- contemporary Organized no-organized Rational emotional Youthful mature Formal informal Orthodox liberal Complex simple Colorless colorful Modest vain A semantic differential scale for measuring

Likert scale: : 

Likert scale: An ordinal scale format that asks the respondents to indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree with a series of mental belief or behavioral belief statements about a given object This scale was developed by rensis likert and is widely used rating scale

PowerPoint Presentation: 

In the likert scale, the matter of choosing opposite adjectives is avoided Rather, it makes a statement or poses one description (Or adjective) for whatever is being evaluated. The respondent is then given a scale whose position range from “strongly Agree" to “strongly disagree" They are also called summated scales because the scores on the individual items are summed to produce a total score for the respondent

PowerPoint Presentation: 

A likert scale usually consists of two parts: Item part Evaluative part The item part is essentially a statement about a certain product, event, or attitude. The evaluative part is a list of response categories ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” An important assumption of this method is that each of the items (statements) measures some aspect of single common factor; Otherwise, the items cannot legitimately be summed. In other words, the resulting scale is unidimensional

PowerPoint Presentation: 

To conduct the analysis, each statement is assigned a numerical score, ranging either from -2 to +2 or 1 to 5 The analysis can be conducted on: An item by item basis (profile analysis) Or a total (summated) score can be calculated for each respondent by summing up across items

Stapel scale: : 

Stapel scale : The stapel scale is a simplification of the semantic differential Developed by jan stapel Unipolar scale with 10 categories numbered from - 5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero), With values progressions ranging from positive to negative which measure direction and intensity simultaneously Usually presented vertically

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Respondents are asked to indicate the object by selecting a numerical response category The higher the positive score, the better the adjective describes the object The main virtue of this scale is that it is easy to administer and construct because there is no need to provide adjectives or phrases to assure bi-polarity

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Example: Application of stapel scale for the retail store image study +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 +2 +3 +3 +3 +4 +4 +4 +5 +5 +5 Wide lesser high Selection known quality Brand -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -4 -4 -4 -5 -5 -5

Thurstone scale:: 

Thurstone scale: The procedure for the thurstone scales is also known as the method of equal appearing intervals, since the objective is to obtain a unidimensional scale with interval properties. The first step is to generate large number of statements or adjectives reflecting all degrees of favorableness toward the attitude objects. Then a group of judges is given this set of items (as many as 75 to 100 in all) and asked to classify them according to their degree of favorableness or unfavorable ness. Usually this is done with an 11- category bipolar scale, with “very favorable” at one end,” very unfavorable” at the other end, and a neutral position in the middle.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

The judges are instructed to treat the intervals between the categories as equal and to make evaluation of each item without expressing their own attitudes. The scale value of each item is the median position to which it is assigned by the judges. The items that have been placed in many different categories are discarded as ambiguous because there was no consensus among the judges. The resulting scale consists of 10 to 20 items that are distributed uniformly along the scale of favorability. The scale then is administered as a part of survey by asking each respondent to select those statements which best reflect his or her feelings towards the attitude object. The respondent’s attitude score is the average of the scale scores of the chosen statements Because of two stage procedure, a thurstone scale is both time consuming and expensive to construct

Attitude measurement: 

Attitude measurement Majority of questions in marketing research are designed to measure attitudes Attitudes include Information possessed Feelings of like and/or dislike Intentions to behave Management wants to understand and influence behavior

Reasons for measuring attitudes: 

Reasons for measuring attitudes Attitudes lead to behavior More feasible to ask questions on attitudes than to observe and interpret behavior Large capacity for diagnosis and explanation

Attitude research: 

Attitude research Attitudes directly affect purchase decisions and these in turn, directly affect attitudes. Attitude Action/ Behavior

What are attitudes?: 

What are attitudes? Mental states used by individuals to structure the way they perceive their environment and guide the way they respond to it

Components of attitude: 

Components of attitude Cognitive or knowledge component Represents a person’s information about an object Includes awareness of; Beliefs about; Judgments about the object, situation or person. Liking or affective component Summarizes overall feelings toward an object, situation or person Like-dislike scale; Favorable-unfavorable scale Intentions or actions components Person’s expectation of future behaviour

Three components of attitude: 

Three components of attitude Affective Component (feel) Cognitive Component (think) Action Component (do )

Concepts of measurement and scaling: 

Concepts of measurement and scaling Measurement Standardized process of assigning numbers or other symbols to certain characteristics of objects of interests according to pre-specified rules Scaling Process of creating a continuum on which objects are located according to the amount of the measured characteristic that the object possesses

Types of measurement: 

Types of measurement Type of measurement depends on type of data! Type of measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

Measurement scales: nominal: 

Measurement scales: nominal Numbers identify and classify objects No ordering or spacing are implied Only possible arithmetic operation is a count of each category If one entity is assigned the same number as another, they are identical with respect to the nominal variable. Examples: Players in a football team Colors of traffic light Gender (female= 1; Male = 2)

Measurement scales: ordinal: 

Measurement scales: ordinal Objects are ranked in order with regard to some common variable. Numbers indicate the relative position of objects but not the magnitude of difference Arithmetic operations are limited to statistics such as median or mode Examples: Result of 100 meter dash (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd ) Ranking of largest fast food companies

Measurement scales: interval: 

Measurement scales: interval Object is measured on a continuum Arbitrary zero point Differences between objects can be compared Entire range of statistical operations can be employed (mean, correlation, ANOVA, regression) Examples: Temperature Attitudes

Measurement scales: ratio: 

Measurement scales: ratio Interval scale with fixed zero point Possible to say how may times greater or smaller one object is than another. Comparison of absolute magnitudes is possible Examples: Weight, length Age Store sales (1 million, 2002; 1.5 million, 2003) Market shares (51% market share)

Types of scales and their properties: 

Types of scales and their properties Type of Measurement Scale Types of Attitude Scale Rules for Assigning Number Typical Application Statistics / Statistical Tests Nominal Dichotomous “yes” or “no” scales. Objects are either identical or different Classification (by sex, geographic are, social class) Percentages, mode / chi -square Ordinal or Rank Order Comparative, Rank order, Itemized Category, Paired Comparison Objects are greater or smaller Rankings (preference, class standing) Percentile, median, rank-order correlation / Friedman ANOVA Interval Likert, Thurstone, Stapel, Associative Semantic-Differential Intervals between adjacent ranks are equal Index numbers, temperature scales, attitude measures Mean, standard deviation, product moment correlations / t-tests, ANOVA, regression, factor analysis Ratio Certain scales with special instructions There is a meaningful zero, so comparison of absolute magnitudes is possible Sales, incomes, units produced, costs, age Geometric and harmonic mean, coefficient of variation Types of Scales and Their Properties

Attitude rating scales: 

Attitude rating scales Present a respondent with a continuum of numbered categories that represent the range of possible attitude adjustments

Attitude scales: 

Attitude scales Attitude scales exist for each measurement type The rating scale (interval data) is the most common type of attitude scale Continuous scales Single item scales Multiple item scales

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Classification of attitude scales Attitude Scales Single-Item Scales Continuous Scales Itemized Category Scales Comparative Scales Q-sort Scales Paired Comparison Scales Rank-Order Scales Constant Sum Scales Pictorial Scales Multi-Item Scales Semantic Differential Scales Associative Scales Stapel Scales Likert Scales

Continuous scales: 

Continuous scales Respondents rate objects by placing a mark at appropriate position on a line running from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other. Easy to construct How would you rate ebony as a department store? Version 1: Probably the worst -------------------------------------------- probably the best Version 2: Probably the worst -------------------------------------------- probably the best 0 2 4 6 8 10

Single item scales: 

Single item scales Only have one item to measure a construct Single item scales types Itemized category (most widely used) Comparative Rank-order Pictorial Constant sum

Single item: itemized category scales: 

Single item: itemized category scales Scales in which the respondent selects from a limited number of categories What is your overall satisfaction with mcdonalds hamburgers? Very satisfied quite satisfied somewhat satisfied not at all satisfied    

Itemized category scales: 

Itemized category scales Scales in which the respondent selects from a limited number of categories How would you rate nirulas on the following factors Excellent average below average Product range [] [] []

Single item: comparative: 

Single item: comparative Comparative scales are a type of itemized category scale. Comparison frame of reference is provided Compared to other ice-cream shops in the area, tasty offers ice-creams that are Superior neither sup/inf inferior Product range [] [] []

Single item: rank order scales: 

Single item: rank order scales Scale in which the respondent compares one item with another or a group of items against each other and ranks them. Results in an ordinal scale. Brand A Flavor B Size A Brand B Flavor C Size C Brand B Flavor A Size A

Single item: rank order scales: 

Single item: rank order scales Please rank the following characteristics of cellular phone service (1 = most important; 6 least) Characteristics Rank Characteristics Rank Cost of Service Reliability of Service Reception clarity 24 hr customer service Low fixed cost of service Size of local coverage area

Single item: constant sum scale: 

Single item: constant sum scale Respondents allocate a fixed number of rating points among several objects to reflect relative preference Divide 100 points among the following attributes of a pc Clock speed: 30 Hard drive size: 20 RAM size: 10 Price: 40

Single item: pictorial scales: 

Single item: pictorial scales Various categories of the scale are depicted pictorially Format must be comprehensible to respond and allow accurate response (used primarily for children) Ex ample: the taste of honey munch cereal is:

Designing single item scales: 

Designing single item scales Number of scale categories 2 to infinity Strength of the anchors Intensity of adjective used to anchor the scale Colorful vs. Very colorful vs. Extremely colorful The stronger the anchor, the less likely respondents are to use the extreme scale categories. Labeling of the categories No labels vs. Some extreme vs. All labels

Designing single item scales: 

Designing single item scales Balance of a scale Balanced vs. Unbalanced Balanced: The smell of mountain dew is: ___ V. Good ____ good ___ bad ___V. Bad Unbalanced: ___ V. Superb ____ V. Good ___ good ___ average

Multiple-item scales: 

Multiple-item scales Developed to measure a sample of beliefs toward the attitude objects and combine the set of answers into an average score Multiple item scales Likert Semantic differential Stapel Associative scaling

Likert scale: 

Likert scale Requires respondent to indicate degree of agreement or disagreement with a variety of statements related to the attitude object Typically used for intangible constructs. Each item (statement) measures some aspect of the common construct. Scores on individual items are summed to give total score for respondents (summated scores)

Likert scale: 

Likert scale Satisfaction survey for a bank: Strongly strongly disagree disagree neutral agree agree 1. The bank offers courteous  service 2. The bank has convenient  locations 3. The bank has convenient hours  4. The bank offers low interest  rate loans Together, the 4 items constitute the scale This is a single item

Semantic differential scale: 

Semantic differential scale Respondents rate each attribute object on a number of five or seven-point rating scales bounded by polar adjectives or phrases With bipolar scale, the midpoint is a neutral point Used for image analysis, profile analysis

Characteristics of semantic differential: 

Characteristics of semantic differential Scales in marketing applications : Pairs of objects or phrases must be meaningful in market being studied and often correspond to product/service attributes Avoid "halo" effect by placing negative pole on either side Category increments are treated as interval scales so group mean values can be computed for each object on each scale May also be analyzed as a summated rating scale

Characteristics of semantic differential (contd.): 

Characteristics of semantic differential (contd.) Profile analysis Application of semantic differential scale Plot mean ratings of each object on each scale for visual comparison Overall comparison of brands hard to grasp with many brands and attributes Not all attributes are independent

Multiple-item scales (contd.): 

Multiple-item scales (contd.) Stapel scales Uses one pole rather than two opposite poles Respondents select a numerical response category High positive score reflects good fit between adjective and object Easy to administer and construct No need to assure bipolarity

Steps in multiple-item scale development: 

Steps in multiple-item scale development Determine clearly what you are going to measure Generate as many items as possible Ask experts in the field to evaluate the initial pool of items Determine the type of attitudinal scale to be used Include some items that will help in the validation of the scale Administer the items to an initial sample Evaluate and refine the items Finally, optimize the scale length

Accuracy of attitude measurements: 

Accuracy of attitude measurements Validity An attitude measure has validity if it measures what it is supposed to measure Reliability The consistency with which the measure produces the same results with the same or comparable population Sensitivity Extent to which ratings provided by a scale are able to discriminate between the respondents who differ with respect to the construct being measured Relevancy Relevance = reliability * validity

Scales in cross-national research: 

Scales in cross-national research Responses can be affected by Low literacy and educational levels Culture in a country Semantic differential scale is closest to pan cultural scale Adapting response formats, particularly their calibration, for specific countries and cultures