Slide 1: ROBOTS History of Robots
Future concerns Slide 2: A robot is defined as:
A mechanical device that sometimes resembles a human and is capable of performing a variety of often complex human tasks on command or by being programmed in advance.
A machine or device that operates automatically or by remote control Therefore, what device was considered the first robot and when was it developed?
A clock, ~ 270 BC Slide 3: A Short History of Robots
350BC - the Greek mathematician, Archytas (ahr ky’ tuhs) builds a mechanical bird dubbed “the pigeon” that is propelled by steam.
270BC - a Greek engineer named Ctesibus (ti sib’ ee uhs) made a pipe organ called a “hydraulis” and water clocks with movable figures. These clocks were the most accurate until the use of the pendulum in the 17th century.
1801 – Joseph Jacquard builds an automated loom that is controlled by a punch card. Punch cards are later used as an input method for some early 20th century computers. Slide 4: 1818 - Mary Shelley wrote "Frankenstein" which was about a frightening artificial lifeform created by Dr. Frankenstein.
1921 - The term "robot" was first used in a play called "R.U.R." or "Rossum's Universal Robots" by the Czech writer Karel Capek (chap’ ek). The plot was simple: man makes robot then robot kills man!
1940 – Isaac Asimov produces a series of short stories about robots starting with “A Strange Playfellow” (later renamed “Robbie”) for Super Science Stories magazine. The story is about a robot bound to protect a child. It is later compiled into the volume, “I, Robot” in 1950.
1941 - Science fiction writer Isaac Asimov first used the word "robotics" to describe the technology of robots and predicted the rise of a powerful robot industry. Slide 5: 1942 - Asimov wrote "Runaround", a story about robots which contained the "Three Laws of Robotics":
A robot may not injure a human, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
A robot must obey the orders it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
He later adds the “Zeroth Law”. A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.
1948 - "Cybernetics", an influence on artificial intelligence research was published by Norbert Wiener.
1956 - George Devol and Joseph Engelberger formed the world's first robot company. Slide 6: 1959 - Computer-assisted manufacturing was demonstrated at the Servomechanisms Lab at MIT.
1961 - The first industrial robot was online in a General Motors automobile factory in New Jersey. It was called UNIMATE.
1963 - The first artificial robotic arm to be controlled by a computer was designed. The Rancho Arm was designed as a tool for the handicapped and it's six joints gave it the flexibility of a human arm.
1965 - DENDRAL was the first expert system or program designed to execute the accumulated knowledge of subject experts.
1967 – Richard Greenblatt writes, MacHack, a program that plays chess. It beats Hurbert Dreyfus in a game of chess. Greenblatt’s program is the foundation for future chess programs including Big Blue that beats chess Grand Master Gary Kasparov.
1969 - The Stanford Arm was the first electrically powered, computer-controlled robot arm. Slide 7: 1974 - A robotic arm (the Silver Arm) that performed small-parts assembly using feedback from touch and pressure sensors was designed.
1977 – Star Wars is released. George Lucas introduces watchers to R2-D2 and C-3PO, and the strongest image of a human future with robots. It inspires a generation of researchers.
1979 - The Standford Cart crossed a chair-filled room without human assistance. The cart had a TV camera mounted on a rail which took pictures from multiple angles and relayed them to a computer. The computer analyzed the distance between the cart and the obstacles. Slide 8: 1997 –Pathfinder lands on Mars.
1997 – The first node of the ISS is placed in orbit using a robotic arm.
1998 – Tiger Electronics introduces Furby. It can react to its environment and communicate using over 800 phrases.
2004 – The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars and prove that Mars was once covered with water. Image courtesy of NASA Slide 9: 2004 – I, Robot, new version of robots trying to take over the world.
2005 - Honda debuts new Asimo robot that can complete office tasks. Slide 10: Why are robots important in today’s society? Slide 11: ROLES AND JOBS OF ROBOTS
Computer Assisted Manufacturing
Personal Slide 12: Computer Assisted Manufacturing
etc. Slide 13: MILITARY
Computer GPS guided bombs “smart bombs”.
Movement of troops, weapons, etc.
Advancements in war weapons, aircraft, artillery, naval ships, etc. Slide 14: MEDICAL
Heart rate monitors
Blood Pressure Machines
etc. Space Exploration : Space Exploration Robonaut
Personal Satellite Assistant Personal Satellite Assistant : Personal Satellite Assistant Prototyped in 2003
Will aid astronauts
through various means Robonaut : Robonaut Developed in 2004
Humanoid robot to assist astronauts
Controlled by Virtual Reality
Several configurations Slide 18: Personal
etc. Slide 19: ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND FUTURE CONCERNS OF ROBOTS
Each machine “robot” helps our population greatly via technology advances and improvements in the overall health of our society.
Labor intensive activities are decreased due to machines “robots”.
Mathematical & statistical computations.
Robots can go and do things that are unsafe for humans (Example: bomb disarming robots, space probes, etc.. Slide 20: CONS & Future concerns:
Loss of jobs due to replacement by robots.
War of the Worlds? Types of End-effectors : Types of End-effectors Robonova - 1 : Robonova - 1 Build Your Own End Effector : Build Your Own End Effector