sericulture (1)

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SERICULTURE IS AN AGRO BASED INDUSTRY.

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SERICULTURE

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SERICULTURE Sericulture is an agro based cottage industry, which include three main activities Production of quality seed, rearing of Silkworm and raising of cocoons for silk, Reeling of cocoons and yield of silk. The cultivation of Mulberry, the leaves of which are used for feeding the silkworms, rearing of silkworms for production of cocoons are indeed activities of agriculture nature. Reeling of cocoons, which yield silk, is basically an industrial activity. Naturally Sericulture involves agriculture and industry, therefore it is recognized as an agro - industry.

History of Sericulture: 

History of Sericulture Historically, sericulture was introduced in China by Hoshomin, the Queen of China. For a long time, sericulture was considered to be a national secret by the Chinese Government, and as an industry it was not known in other countries. Sericulture was introduced in India 400 years back and the industry flourished as an agro-industry giving employment to over 7.3 million people in the Country.

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1. Mulberry culture 2 .Eri culture 3 .Tasar culture 4 .Muga culture

Mulberry Culture: 

Mulberry Culture

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Kingdom : Animalia Phylum :Arthropoda Class : Insecta Order : Lepidoptera Family : Bombycidae Genus : Bombyx Species : Bombyx mori Bombyx mori.Lin.

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Kingdom : Plantae Phylum : Dichotilidanea Class :Monochlamydeae Order : Unisexuales Family : Moraceae Species : Morus alba. Linn. Morus alba.Lin.

Eri Culture: 

Eri Culture

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Kingdom : Animalia Phylum :Arthropoda Class : Insecta Order : Lepidoptera Family : Saturniidae Sub Family:Saturniinae Genus : Samia Species : Samia cynthia ricini Samia cynthia ricini

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Kingdom : Plantae Phylum : Dichotilidanea Class :Monochlamydeae Order : Unisexuales Family : Euphorbiaceae Species : Ricinus communis.Linn. Ricinus communis.Linn.

Tasar Culture: 

Tasar Culture

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Antheraea paphia Kingdom : Animalia Phylum :Arthropoda Class : Insecta Order : Lepidoptera Family : Saturniidae Sub Family:Saturniinae Genus : Antheraea Species : Antheraea paphia

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Kingdom : Plantae Phylum : Dichotilidanea Class :Polypetalae Order : Disciflorae Family : Combretaceae Species : Terminalia arjuna. Terminalia arjuna

Muga Culture: 

Muga Culture

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Antheraea assamensis Kingdom : Animalia Phylum :Arthropoda Class : Insecta Order : Lepidoptera Family : Saturniidae Sub Family:Saturniinae Genus : Antheraea Species : Antheraea assamensis

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Kingdom : Plantae Phylum : Angiosperms Class :Polypetalae Order : Laurales Family : Lauraceae Species : Litsea polyantha . Litsea polyantha

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Morus alba V/S Bombyx Mori Normal Mulberry Silk Mulberry culture Eri culture V/S Samia cynthia ricini Ricinus communis Eri Silk Continued Type of Sericulture

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Tasar culture Terminalia arjuna V/S Antheraea paphia Tasar Silk Muga culture V/S Antheraea assamensis Litsea polyantha Muga Silk (Golden Silk) Type of Sericulture (contd,.)

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What is silk ?

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Naturally Silk is a Protein. Silk emitted by the silkworm consists of two main proteins, sericin and fibroin , fibroin being the structural centre of the silk, and sericin being the sticky material surrounding it. Fibroin is made up of the amino acids Gly-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Ala and forms beta pleated sheets. Hydrogen bonds form between chains, and side chains form above and below the plane of the hydrogen bond network. The high proportion (50%) of glycine, which is a small amino acid, allows tight packing and the fibers are strong and resistant to breaking. The tensile strength is due to the many inter seeded hydrogen bonds, and when stretched the force is applied to these numerous bonds and they do not break. Silk is resistant to most mineral acids, except for sulphuric acid, which dissolves it. It is yellowed by perspiration.

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Transgenic Silk worm glands

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Facts About Silk

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Sericulture has been practiced for at least 5000 years in China The Silkworm (Bombyx mori, Latin for “silkworm of the mulberry tree") is, technically, not a worm. It is the larva or caterpillar of a moth in the family Bombicidae A silkworm's diet consists solely of mulberry leaves The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is entirely dependent on humans for its reproduction and no longer occurs in the wild. It is native to northern China. Its nearest wild relative is Bombyx mandarina with which it is able to hybridize The silkworm female deposits around 400 eggs at a time. In an area the size of your monitor screen, about 100 moths would deposit more than 40,000 eggs, each about the size of a pinhead

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The female dies almost immediately after depositing the eggs; the male lives only a short time after. The adult does not eat during the short period of its mature existence After growing to its maximum size at around 6 weeks, the larva is about 10,000 times heavier than when it hatched One hectare of mulberry trees yields about eleven tons of leaves, producing around 450 pounds of cocoons, but just about 85 pounds of raw silk The cocoon is made of a single continuous thread of raw silk around 1 kilometer (2/3 of a mile) long About 2,000 to 3,000 cocoons are required to make a pound of silk. One pound of silk represents about 1,000 miles of filament

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It takes silk from over 2,000 cocoons to produce a single kimono The annual world production represents 70 billion miles of silk filament, a distance well over 300 round trips to the sun Based on 1 kilometre (2/3 of mile) per cocoon, ten unravelled cocoons could theoretically extend vertically to the height of Mount Everest The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fiber’s triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles Silk fibers are very fine, about 10 nanometers (1/2500th of an inch) in diameter Strong as steel in tensile strength, silk is the strongest natural fiber known to man Silk is much lower in density compared to cotton, wool or nylon. It is, therefore, highly moisture absorbent, able to absorb as much as a third of its own weight in moisture without feeling damp

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A highly versatile fabric, silk has proven to be ideal for a variety of uses – from formal wear to sleepwear, from parachutes to rugs, from medical sutures to prosthetic arteries Silk has a miniscule percentage of the global textile fiber market – less than 0.2%. Yet the actual trading value of silk and silk products is in many billions of dollars since the unit price for raw silk is roughly twenty times that of raw cotton Current world silk production is estimated to be around 125,000 metric tons. China produces about 80% of the world’s silk; and India over 10% Japan, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, and Uzbekistan also have a significant production of raw silk and silk yarn. Brazil is the only non-Asian country that is a significant producer of raw silk or silk yarn United States is the largest silk importer in the world

Did we know ? : 

16 September 2010 Did we know ? The journey from Silkworm egg to a matured larva in 25-28 days time gains 10,000 times of the weight of the egg…… which is highest in the Animal Kingdom. The filament from one Mulberry Cocoon (Biv.) can be more than 1 kilometer.

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16 September 2010 THANK YOU