Slide 1: DIAMOND CHIP U.J.Mrudula B.Manasa S.Aieswarya By TO OVERCOME THE DEFECTS OF SILICON CHIP Slide 2: Electronics with out silicon is unbelievable, but it will come true with evolution of diamond or carbon chip.
Now-a-days we are using silicon for manufacturing of electronic chips.
It has many disadvantages when it is used in power electronic applications, such as bulk size, slow operating speeds, etc…
By using carbon as manufacturing material, we can achieve smaller, faster and stronger chips INTRODUCTION: What is Diamond chip? : What is Diamond chip? Diamond chip is nothing but carbon chip.
Carbon chip is an electronic chip manufactured on a diamond structural carbon wafer.
The major component using carbon is (cnt) ”CARBON NANOTUBE” WHAT IS A CARBON NANOTUBE… : Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991.
It is a nano - size cylinder of carbon atoms.
They are made of one or several concentric walls in which carbon atoms are arranged in hexagonal pattern, measuring several tens of microns in length and less than a few nanometres in diameter. WHAT IS A CARBON NANOTUBE… Slide 5: Imagine a sheet of carbon atoms, which would look like a sheet of hexagons.
If you roll that sheet into a tube, you'd have a carbon nanotube.
Carbon nanotube properties depend on how you roll the sheet. HOW NANOTECHNOLOGY WORKS… Slide 6: Carbon will succeed silicon as the predominate semiconducting material for the integrated circuits of the future.
Carbon--which sits just above silicon on the periodic table can surpass silicon’s abilities in thermal performance, frequency range and perhaps even superconductivity. CARBON FEATURES… CARBON MADE INTO CHIPS Slide 7: One-dimensional carbon-1nm-diameter nanotubes--could solve digital silicon's speed woes.
Nanotubes will appear first as printable "inks" that are 10 times faster than competing organic transistors.
zero-dimensional carbon--60-atom, hollow spheres of carbon called fullerenes--could answer silicon's inability to attain high-temperature superconductivity. Slide 8: Transistors less than one-quarter the size of the tiniest silicon ones - and potentially more efficient - can be made using sheets of carbon just one-tenth of a nanometre thick, research shows.
The transistors are made of graphene, a sheet of carbon atoms in a flat honeycomb arrangement. Graphene makes graphite when stacked in layers, and carbon nanotubes when rolled into a tube.
Graphene also conducts electricity faster than most materials since electrons can travel through in straight lines between atoms without being scattered. This could ultimately mean faster, more efficient electronic components that also require less power. CARBON TRANSISTORS Slide 9: When placed a piece of graphene on top of silicon and positioned this over a metallic grate.
Acid was used to dissolve the silicon, leaving graphene suspended across 500 nm gaps.
A transmission electron microscope then revealed it is covered in tiny ripples, which keep the material stable.
The ripples extend about 1 nm up and down and are around 25 nm across. It's not flat at all.. Sheets of graphene are a single carbon atom thick
and have a wavy structure that keeps them stable Slide 10: SMALLER COMPONENTS ARE POSSIBLE
As the size of the carbon atom is small compared with that of silicon atom, it is possible to etch very smaller lines through diamond structural carbon. We can realize a transistor whose size is one in hundredth of silicon transistor.
IT WORKS AT HIGHER TEMPERATURE
Diamond is very strongly bonded material. It can withstand higher temperatures compared with that of silicon. At very high temperature, crystal structure of the silicon will collapse. But diamond chip can function well in these elevated temperatures.
Diamond is very good conductor of heat. So if there is any heat dissipation inside the chip, heat will very quickly transferred to the heat sink or other cooling mechanics. Advantages :- Slide 11: FASTER THAN SILICON CHIP
Carbon chip works faster than silicon chip. Mobility of the electrons inside the doped diamond structural carbon is higher than that of in he silicon structure.
As the size of the silicon is higher than that of carbon, the chance of collision of electrons with larger silicon atoms increases. But the carbon atom size is small, so the chance of collision decreases.
LARGER POWER HANDLING CAPACITY
For power electronics application silicon is used, but it has many disadvantages such as bulk in size, slow operating speed, less efficiency, lower band gap etc at very high voltages silicon structure will collapse. Diamond has a strongly bonded crystal structure. So carbon chip can work under high power environment.. We can connect high power circuit direct to the diamond chip CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION Thus diamond chip replaces the need of silicon in every aspect in future generations….. Slide 13: Thank you QUERIES : QUERIES ?