Chemotherapy : Chemotherapy Slide 2: Chemotherapy is a common treatment for a variety of cancers.
It has proven to be safe and effective. Slide 3: An understanding of this treatment helps patients better recognize and tolerate side effects, if they occur. CHEMOTHERAPY : CHEMOTHERAPY Antineoplastic agents are used in an attempt to destroy tumor cells by interfering with cellular functions including replication
Chemotherapy is used primarily to treat systemic disease rather than localized lesions that are amenable to surgery or radiation How Does Chemotherapy Works? : How Does Chemotherapy Works? Slide 6: To understand how chemotherapy works as a treatment, it is helpful to understand the normal life cycle of a cell in the body.
All living tissue is composed of cells. Cells grow and reproduce to replace cells lost during injury or normal "wear and tear." The cell cycle is a series of steps that both normal cells and cancer cells go through in order to form new cells. Slide 7: The cell cycle phases are: resting (G0; nothing is happening), G1 (or gap 1; a growth phase), S (synthesis; the replication of DNA occurs), G2 (gap 2; another growth phase), and M (mitosis; the actual division from 1 cell into 2). Slide 8: The Cell Cycle
G0 phase (resting stage): The cell has not yet started to divide. Cells spend much of their lives in this phase. Depending on the type of cell, G0 can last for a few hours to a few years. When the cell is signaled to reproduce, it moves into the G1 phase.
G1 phase: During this phase, the cell starts making more proteins and growing larger, so the new cells will be of normal size. This phase lasts about 18 to 30 hours. Slide 9: S phase: In the S phase, the chromosomes containing the genetic code (DNA) are copied so that both of the new cells formed will have matching strands of DNA. This phase lasts about 18 to 20 hours.
G2 phase: In the G2 phase, the cell checks the DNA and prepares to start splitting into 2 cells. It lasts from 2 to 10 hours.
M phase (mitosis): In this phase, which lasts only 30 to 60 minutes, the cell actually splits into 2 new cells. How is chemotherapy given? : How is chemotherapy given? Slide 11: Orally (by mouth, in pill form)
Intravenously (IV, through a vein, either as a short infusion or continuously for one or more days)
As an injection or needle
Directly into a body cavity (i.e.: the bladder, abdominal cavity)
Intra-arterially (in special cases, such as limb perfusion treatment for melanoma) Slide 13: Sequence of treatments:
Adjuvant therapy: therapy given after surgery to reduce the likelihood of the cancer returning.
Neo-adjuvant therapy: therapy given before surgery to shrink the tumor, allowing the surgery to be more successful.
Concurrent therapy: when 2 or more therapies are given together, such as chemotherapy and radiation. What are the side effects of chemotherapy? : What are the side effects of chemotherapy? Slide 15: SKIN
Hair loss occurs because chemotherapy can sometimes damage healthy cells.
It is so common because hair follicle cells multiply very quickly like cancer cells and chemotherapy drugs have difficulty in discerning the difference. Slide 17: GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
can cause irritation which can eventually lead to inflammation of the mouth, a condition known as stomatitis .
A stinging sensation in the throat may develop and lead to dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing).
Good oral hygiene Slide 18: Nausea & Vomiting- most common side effects of chemotherapy and may persist for as long as 24-48 hrs. after its administration.
Mucositis – inflammation of the mucosal lining Slide 19: Diarrhea can also be a side effect of chemotherapy. Caused by the destruction of normal, dividing cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, diarrhea varies from patient to patient. It is better managed if treated early
Rapid tumor cell lysis- increased urinary excretion of uric acid, which can cause renal damage Slide 20: HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM
Myelosuppression- depression of bone marrow function, resulting in decreased production of blood cells.
Decreases the number of RBCs (anemia), WBCs (leukopenia) and platelets (thrombocytopenia) Slide 21: Colony-stimulating factor:
G-CSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor)
GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor)
EPO (erythropoietin) Slide 22: REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
take effective contraceptive precautions when having chemotherapy, as the chemotherapy drugs might harm the baby if pregnancy occurs. In some women, chemotherapy brings on an early menopause. This may cause symptoms such as dryness of the vagina and a decreased interest in sex. Slide 23: NEUROLOGIC SYSTEM
Loss of deep tendon reflexes
Alopecia Nursing Management in Chemotherapy : Nursing Management in Chemotherapy Slide 25: Assess fluid and electrolyte status
(Anorexia, nausea & vomiting, altered taste and diarrhea put patient at risk)
Modifying risk for infection and bleeding
(suppression of the bone marrow and immune system) Slide 26: Administering Chemotherapy
- patient is observed for extravasation (particularly of vesicant agents, which may produce necrosis if deposited in subcutaneous tissues
Protect caregivers Slide 27: Prepared by:
Riozamay S. Causapin
Percilla Patriciah de Guzman