Arts of Teaching FACDEV

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Arts of Teaching:

Arts of Teaching By: MARILOU T. DELA CUESTA Phase I

TEN Effective Teaching Principles:

TEN Effective Teaching Principles

I. Create An Active Learning Environment:

I. Create An Active Learning Environment "Active learning provides opportunities for students to talk and listen, read, write, and reflect as they approach course content through problem-solving exercises, informal small groups, simulations, case studies, role playing, in class questions and other activities, all of which require students to apply what they are learning and/or think about what they are learning as they are learning"

P1-Application examples::

P1-Application examples: - Have students prepare a “minute paper” to answer “what was the most important thing you learned in this class?” and “what important question remains unanswered?” -Post weekly learning achievements. - Using “I learned that” statements

II. FOCUS ATTENTION:

II. FOCUS ATTENTION Focus the attention of students on the aspects that matter most.

P2- Application Examples:

P2- Application Examples Tell the students why they need to learn the lesson Unlocking of difficulties

III. Connect Knowledge:

III. Connect Knowledge "The more meaningful and appropriate connections students make between what they know and what they are learning, the more permanently they will anchor new information in long-term memory and the easier it will be for them to access that information when it's needed"

P3-Application Examples:

P3-Application Examples "Provide many and varied examples, illustrations/descriptions, drawings, images, metaphors, and analogies. But ask students to provide them, as well, then give the students feedback on their usefulness and appropriateness. To assess the connections they are making, are to ask them to compose a metaphor ('Learning is _________') or to complete an analogy ('Teaching is to learning as ______ is to _______')"

Give students opportunities to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. "Different students bring different talents and styles. Brilliant students in a seminar may not excel in a lab or studio, students rich in hands-on experience may not do so well with theory" (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996, 5).:

Give students opportunities to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. "Different students bring different talents and styles. Brilliant students in a seminar may not excel in a lab or studio, students rich in hands-on experience may not do so well with theory" (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996, 5).

IV. Help Students Organize Their Knowledge:

IV. Help Students Organize Their Knowledge Information without organization and context does not promote learning. "Information organized in personally meaningful ways is more likely to be retained, learned, and used" (Angelo, 1993, p. 5).

P4-Application Examples:

P4-Application Examples Have students create a "Concept Map“ Students are to diagram major concepts and how they relate to each other. "Show students a number of different, useful, and acceptable ways to organize the same information. Use prose, outlines, graphs, drawings, and models. Assess students' organizing schemas and skills by getting them to show you their 'mental models' in a similar variety of ways"

V. Provide Timely Feedback:

V. Provide Timely Feedback "Regular feedback helps learners efficiently direct their attention and energies, helps them avoid major errors and dead ends, and keeps them from learning things they later will have to unlearn at great cost. It also can serve as a motivating form of interaction between teacher and learner, and among learners. When students learn to internalize the voice of the 'coach,' they can begin to give themselves corrective feedback" (Angelo, 1993, p. 6).

P5-Application Examples:

P5-Application Examples . Establish a time period within which all assignments or tests will be graded and returned to the students Give students chances to reflect on what they have learned, what they still need to know and how they might assess themselves (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996, p. 4).

VI. Demand Quality:

VI. Demand Quality "Expect more and you will get more. High expectations are important for everyone-- for the poorly prepared, for those unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright and well motivated. Expecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy" (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996, p. 5).

P6-Application Examples:

P6-Application Examples .Post examples of what you consider unacceptable work, minimum standard work and excellent work. . Provide a rubric or grading criteria by which students will be evaluated.

Make expectations very clear in the beginning dates, deadlines, late work, plagiarism, etc. Perhaps issue a “contract” at the beginning of the course to outline responsibilities and expectations. :

Make expectations very clear in the beginning dates, deadlines, late work, plagiarism, etc. Perhaps issue a “contract” at the beginning of the course to outline responsibilities and expectations.

VII. Balance High Expectations With Student Support:

VII. Balance High Expectations With Student Support The weaker or smaller the student's foundation (preparation) in the subject, the stronger and larger the instructional scaffolding (structure and support) that is required" .Keep expectations of the students high, but provide ample support for those who have less exposure to or ability in the subject.

P7-Applications Example:

P7-Applications Example Encourage the better-prepared students to master their learning by serving as tutors, helping to create scaffolding for others, and to take more responsibility for their own learning through independent studies and special projects.

VIII. Enhance Motivation to Learn:

VIII. Enhance Motivation to Learn "Motivation to learn is alterable; it can be positively or negatively affected by the task, the environment, the teacher, and the learner" (Angelo, 1993, p. 8).

P8-Applications Example:

P8-Applications Example Motivate your students by conveying the value of what you're teaching; make them believe that learning it will help them achieve other important goals; help them believe that they are capable of learning it; and show them that you expect that they will succeed (Angelo, 1993, p. 8).

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"Give students lots of specific examples of the value and usefulness of what they're learning and help them make connections between short-term course goals and their own long-term goals.

IX. Faculty-student and Student-student Interaction and Communication:

IX. Faculty-student and Student-student Interaction and Communication Frequent student-faculty contact in and out of class is a most important factor in student motivation and involvement

P9-Application Examples:

P9-Application Examples Promote sharing of ideas and collaboration. "Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort than a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. Working with others often increases involvement in learning. Sharing one's ideas and responding to others' improves thinking and deepens understanding"

X. Help Students Productively Manage Their Time:

X. Help Students Productively Manage Their Time "Time plus energy equals learning. Learning to use one's time well is critical for students and professionals alike. Allocating realistic amounts of time means effective learning for students and effective teaching for faculty" (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996, p. 4).

P10-Application Examples:

P10-Application Examples . Allow the students to choose the due date on one assignment. Set deadlines for projects to help students meet course competency goals.

Phrase to Ponder:

Phrase to Ponder First, be sympathetic to those in your keeping. You may have become accustomed to the sight of youngsters struggling with the rigors of growing up, but this is the first time through for them. Second, never assume that a student is just average. Every student possesses the ability to excel at something worthwhile, whether drawing, science,or friendship. Third, grades count, but sincerity of effort counts too. Fourth and last, the opportunity to teach is ever present—seize it as often as you can.

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“Teaching is a profession that makes all profession possible”

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