# Makendran-Railway Engineering

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As per anna university syllabus in railway engineering

By: TARUN_007 (61 month(s) ago)

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### Railway engineering:

Prepared by Makendran c Railway engineering 1

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GAUGE The clear horizontal distance between the inner (running) faces of the two rails forming a track is known as Gauge. (see in fig given below) 2

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Originally, the wheels of the railway vehicles were provided with flanges on outside. So, the distance between the outer faces of rails of an track was considered as gauge. The first track was laid in England with an outside gauge of 1.524m. Later, it was found advantageous to provide flanges on inner side of the wheels for easy turning of trains from one track to another. This change was made without interfering with rails 4

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and thus the distance between the inner faces of rail of a track was termed as the gauge. This converted the gauge from 1524 mm (5’) to 1435 mm (4’-8½’’) due to reduction of two rail head widths, each 44.45 mm (1¾”). This gauge of 1435 mm has been universally used in Great Britain, France, Germany, U.S.A., Canada and most other countries of Europe and is thus known as the world standard gauge. 5

### TYPES OF GAUGES PREVALENT IN INDIA:

TYPES OF GAUGES PREVALENT IN INDIA The different gauges prevalent in India are of the following these types :- Broad gauge (1676), Metre gauge (1000), Narrow gauge (762 mm & 610 mm). 6

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7 Broad Gauge :- When the clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of two parallel rails forming a track is 1676mm the gauge is called Broad Gauge (B.G) This gauge is also known as standard gauge of India and is the broadest gauge of the world. The Other countries using the Broad Gauge are Pakistan, Bangladesh, SriLanka, Brazil, Argentine,etc.50% India’s railway tracks have been laid to this gauge.

### Suitability :- Broad gauge is suitable under the following Conditions :- (i) When sufficient funds are available for the railway project. (ii) When the prospects of revenue are very bright. This gauge is, therefore, used for tracks in plain areas which are densely populated i.e. for routes of maximum traffic, intensities and at places which are centers of industry and commerce. 2. Metre Gauge :- When the clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of two:

Suitability :- Broad gauge is suitable under the following Conditions :- (i) When sufficient funds are available for the railway project. (ii) When the prospects of revenue are very bright. This gauge is, therefore, used for tracks in plain areas which are densely populated i.e. for routes of maximum traffic, intensities and at places which are centers of industry and commerce. 2. Metre Gauge :- When the clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of two 8

### parallel rails forming a track is 1000mm, the gauge is known as Metre Gauge (M.G) The other countries using Metre gauge are France, Switzerland, Argentine, etc. 40% of India’s railway tracks have been laid to this gauge. Suitability :- Metre Gauge is suitable under the following conditions:- (i) When the funds available for the railway project are inadequate. (ii) When the prospects of revenue are not very bright. This gauge is, therefore, used for tracks in under-developed areas and in interior areas:

parallel rails forming a track is 1000mm, the gauge is known as Metre Gauge (M.G) The other countries using Metre gauge are France, Switzerland, Argentine, etc. 40% of India’s railway tracks have been laid to this gauge. Suitability :- Metre Gauge is suitable under the following conditions:- (i) When the funds available for the railway project are inadequate. (ii) When the prospects of revenue are not very bright. This gauge is, therefore, used for tracks in under-developed areas and in interior areas 9

### Where traffic intensity is small and prospects for future development are not very bright. 3.Narrow Gauge :- When the clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of two parallel rails forming a track is either 762mm or 610mm, the gauge is known as Narrow gauge (N.G) The other countries using narrow gauge are Britain, South Africa, etc. 10% of India’s railway tracks have been laid to this gauge. Suitability :- Narrow gauge is suitable under the following conditions :- :

Where traffic intensity is small and prospects for future development are not very bright. 3.Narrow Gauge :- When the clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of two parallel rails forming a track is either 762mm or 610mm, the gauge is known as Narrow gauge (N.G) The other countries using narrow gauge are Britain, South Africa, etc. 10% of India’s railway tracks have been laid to this gauge. Suitability :- Narrow gauge is suitable under the following conditions :- 10

### ( i) When the construction of a track with wider gauge is prohibited due to the provision of sharp curves, steep gradients, narrow bridges and tunnels etc. (ii) When the prospects of revenue are not very bright. This gauge is, therefore, used in hilly and very thinly populated areas. The feeder gauge is commonly used for feeding raw materials to big government manufacturing concerns as well as to private factories such as steel plants, oil refineries, sugar factories, etc.:

( i) When the construction of a track with wider gauge is prohibited due to the provision of sharp curves, steep gradients, narrow bridges and tunnels etc. (ii) When the prospects of revenue are not very bright. This gauge is, therefore, used in hilly and very thinly populated areas. The feeder gauge is commonly used for feeding raw materials to big government manufacturing concerns as well as to private factories such as steel plants, oil refineries, sugar factories, etc. 11

### Factors Affecting the Adoption of a Particular Gauge:

Factors Affecting the Adoption of a Particular Gauge The following are the factors which affect the adoption of a particular gauge for the track :- Intensity of Population. Intensity of Traffic. Industrial and Commercial development of the Locality. Prospects of future development of the area. 12

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V. Funds available for th railway project. Topographical and Geological Features of the country. Effects of Breaking the Gauge One country should have only one gauge throughout its various parts. But the policy of India and its Topographical, Geological and Financial conditions have led to adopt various gauges in its different parts. The various effects of breaking or change of gauge are discussed below :- 13

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Advantages of Breaking the Gauge :- i). The most effective advantage of breaking the gauge is to render the railway an economical and profitable concern. ii). It facilitates the provision of a steeper gradient, sharp curves and narrow tunnels by adopting a less wide gauge in hilly and rocky areas. 2. Disadvantages of Breaking the Gauge :- i). It causes much inconvenience to the passengers while changing the train at station, with change of gauge. 14

### ii). It causes delay in movement of people and goods. iii). It results in wastage of time. iv). It involves extra labour for unloading and reloading the goods. The goods are also likely to be damaged or dislocated at the junction station, having change of gauge. v). It requires the provision of extra and costly transshipment yards, godowns, sheds, etc. at every junction station having change of gauge. vi). It causes extreme difficulty in quick movement of military and ammunition during war days.:

ii). It causes delay in movement of people and goods. iii). It results in wastage of time. iv). It involves extra labour for unloading and reloading the goods. The goods are also likely to be damaged or dislocated at the junction station, having change of gauge. v). It requires the provision of extra and costly transshipment yards, godowns, sheds, etc. at every junction station having change of gauge. vi). It causes extreme difficulty in quick movement of military and ammunition during war days. 15

### RAILWAY ENGINEERING:

16 RAILWAY ENGINEERING The branch of Civil Engineering which deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the railway tracks for safe and efficient movements of trains is called Railway Engineering.

### As per scope of this book, we shall study here only about construction and maintenance of railway tracks and not with the design of tracks.:

SCOPE OF RAILWAY ENGINEERING A part from design, construction and maintenance of tracks, Railway engineering also includes the study of the following important topics :- Types of surveys necessary in marking the alignment of different railways tracks As per scope of this book, we shall study here only about construction and maintenance of railway tracks and not with the design of tracks. 17

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18 Materials required in the construction of railway tracks. Track geometrics. Points and crossings. Railways stations and yards. Signaling and interlocking, etc. We shall study about the above topics in the subsequent chapters of this book.

### Important Technical Terms:

Important Technical Terms There are many important technical terms concerning to Railways, but a few terms which are of immediate concern are only discussed bellow:- Railway:-A track formed of rails of iron or steel along which trains are driven is known as railway. In general, the term railway also includes all liens of rails,*sidings or branches, 19

### worked over for the purpose of or in connection with a railway. As per section 3 of the Indian Railway Act 1890, railway means a railway, or any portion of the public carriage of passengers, animals or goods. General Rule 5(10) in Part III (Red Tariff) defines, railway means a railway, or any portion of the public carriage of passengers, animals or goods and includes all lines of rails, sidings or branches worked over for the purpose of or in connection with railway.:

worked over for the purpose of or in connection with a railway. As per section 3 of the Indian Railway Act 1890, railway means a railway, or any portion of the public carriage of passengers, animals or goods. General Rule 5(10) in Part III (Red Tariff) defines, railway means a railway, or any portion of the public carriage of passengers, animals or goods and includes all lines of rails, sidings or branches worked over for the purpose of or in connection with railway. 20

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21 Rolling stock:- The locomotives, passenger coaches and goods wagons which roll or run on railway tracks constitute rolling stock. The different types of rolling stock are illustrated. Locomotive:- The mechanical device which transfers chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy in the form of motion is called locomotive. The fuel used in the locomotives may be in the form of water and coal, diesel or electricity.

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22 Wagons :- The goods compartments are called wagons. This term applies only to good stock. Coaches or vehicles :- The passenger compartments are called coaches or vehicles. This term applies only to coaching stock. Coaching stock :- All types of vehicles that run in passenger trains are called coaching stock. Goods stock :- Wagons used for movement of goods, heavy and bulky commodities are called goods stock.

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### ↑↑TYPES OF ROLLING STOCK↑↑:

↑↑ TYPES OF ROLLING STOCK ↑↑ NECESSITY OF RAILWAYS Railways are significant and potential means of transporting men and material over large distance in a country. This system of conveyance helps in manufacturing goods by transporting raw materials from far off places to the factories and also in transporting the finished products to the marketing centers. The introduction of Railways has converted 24

### barren lands into green fields and well developed towns and cities. Railways have also helped in developing cultural and social ties among the people by transporting them from one corner to the other corner of the country. Thus, we see that progress made by any country and well being of a nation depends much on Railways. The necessity or utility of Railways can be well realized from the following purpose and advantages of Railways :- I. Railways provide convenient and safe means of transporting people and goods over large distance in a country.:

barren lands into green fields and well developed towns and cities. Railways have also helped in developing cultural and social ties among the people by transporting them from one corner to the other corner of the country. Thus, we see that progress made by any country and well being of a nation depends much on Railways. The necessity or utility of Railways can be well realized from the following purpose and advantages of Railways :- I. Railways provide convenient and safe means of transporting people and goods over large distance in a country. 25

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26 Railways help in uniting the people of different religious, customs and traditions living in different parts of a country and thus strengthen national unity. Railways help in developing cultural and social ties among the people living in different parts of a country. Railways act as a special boon to pilgrims and travelers who wish to visit far places of their interest with safety, comfort and economy in time and money.

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27 Railway facility cheap and convenient communication of bulks of letters, parcels and heavy goods like raw materials, coal, ores, etc. from mines and manufacturing concerns within a country. Railways help in growth of trade and industrial development in a country. The value of land increases due to industrial development because of Railways, which ultimately results into the increase of national wealth. Railways help in providing efficient distribution of natural resources and

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28 agricultural products all over the country. Railways help in price stabilization of commodities due to mobility of products in all parts of a country. Railways help in removing distress of people in famine affected areas by transporting food and clothing on a large scale. Railways provide employment opportunities to people on a large scale and thus help in reducing unemployment problem of the

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29 country. Railways help in maintaining better law and order in a country. Railways play its vital role in national defense of a country by transporting army and ammunition quickly on a country by transporting army and ammunition quickly on a large scale during war days. Railways form a main source of revenue to a country without any taxation. Thus, it can be said that Railways act as a symbol of country ‘s progress.

### The development, civilization and efficiency of a nation can be easily judged by the extent of its Railways.:

MARITS OF RAILWAYS WITH RESPECT TO ROADWAYS, WATERWAYS AND AIRWAYS Every mode of transportation has got its advantages. Whatever may be the advantages of other modes of transportation. Railways have got the following peculiar merits which are responsible for its importance over other modes of transportation :- The development, civilization and efficiency of a nation can be easily judged by the extent of its Railways. 30

### (i) Railways provide a comfortable and safe means of communication within the reach of a common man. (ii) Transport of bulk of letters, parcels and heavy goods like raw materials, coal, ores, etc. from the mines and manufacturing concerns for long distance is cheap and convenient only by Railways. (iii) Railways transport requires the least amount of power as compared to its weight. (iv) In case of Railways, only the direction of movement of trains is controlled and practically :

(i) Railways provide a comfortable and safe means of communication within the reach of a common man. (ii) Transport of bulk of letters, parcels and heavy goods like raw materials, coal, ores, etc. from the mines and manufacturing concerns for long distance is cheap and convenient only by Railways. (iii) Railways transport requires the least amount of power as compared to its weight. (iv) In case of Railways, only the direction of movement of trains is controlled and practically 31

### no steering is required for diverting the trains from one track to an other track. (v) Railways act as the biggest undertaking in the world and thus provide employment opportunities on large scale. (vi) Railways from the chief sources of revenue to a country without any taxation. Modern methods such as modernization of traction (gradually switching over to diesel and electric traction), speedy, trains, automation in operation, high powered locomotives, etc.:

no steering is required for diverting the trains from one track to an other track. (v) Railways act as the biggest undertaking in the world and thus provide employment opportunities on large scale. (vi) Railways from the chief sources of revenue to a country without any taxation. Modern methods such as modernization of traction (gradually switching over to diesel and electric traction), speedy, trains, automation in operation, high powered locomotives, etc. 32

### are being employed in Railways to impart better services to all the users and to create a bright future for this mode of transportation.:

SYSTEMS OF RAILWAYS The Railways can be provided on, above the below the ground surface, suiting to the area. Further, the Railways below the ground surface can be constructed just below the ground surface can be constructed just below the ground level or at greater depths. are being employed in Railways to impart better services to all the users and to create a bright future for this mode of transportation. 33

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There are, therefore, the following four systems of Railways :- Surface railways; Elevated railways; Under ground railways; Tube railways. Surface railways :-The railways provided over the ground surface are known as surface railways. Suitability :-This system is Railways is most extensively used throughout the world 34

### because this is the best system for transporting people and goods. In surface railways, the various means like*level crossings,**over-bridge or***under-bridge are to be provided for crossing of the railway and road traffic safely and efficiently. 2) Elevated railways :-The railways provided at higher or elevated portion, above the ground surface are called “high level” or “elevated railways”. In this system of Railways, a:

because this is the best system for transporting people and goods. In surface railways, the various means like*level crossings,**over-bridge or***under-bridge are to be provided for crossing of the railway and road traffic safely and efficiently. 2) Elevated railways :-The railways provided at higher or elevated portion, above the ground surface are called “high level” or “elevated railways”. In this system of Railways, a 35

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continuous viaduct supported on piers, columns, etc. is constructed and the track is carried on its steel deck. This system is very costly because buildings like stations, waiting halls, offices are to be constructed at high levels requiring stair cases, escalators, etc. but elevated railways cause little obstruction due to piers, columns supporting the track. Suitability :- Elevated railways are suitable in the heavily congested urban areas where the under ground railways cannot be 36

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constructed . Under ground railways :- The railways provided just below ground level are called “low level or underground railways”. In this system of Railways, tunnels are constructed for carrying tracks through them and a over - bridge is necessary at every road crossing to carry the road traffic over the railway traffic. Due to ventilation problems in tunnels, electricity is the only source of power for traction in under ground railways. 37

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Advantages :- This system provides rapid and unobstructed transportation. This system helps in reducing traffic congestion problems. This system provides safety during aerial attack in war. Suitability :- Under ground railways are suitable in the heavily congested urban areas where the traffic intensity on roads is heavy. 38

### Tube railways :- The railway provided underground at a greater depth of about 18 m or more (up to 52 m) are called tube railways. This system of railways is so called as the section of the underground tunnels, carrying the track, is to avoid the interference of the tracks with water and gas pipes, sewerage systems and oil or drainage pipes, etc Some important features of the tube railways are given below :-:

Tube railways :- The railway provided underground at a greater depth of about 18 m or more (up to 52 m) are called tube railways. This system of railways is so called as the section of the underground tunnels, carrying the track, is to avoid the interference of the tracks with water and gas pipes, sewerage systems and oil or drainage pipes, etc Some important features of the tube railways are given below :- 39

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The railways stations have to be of cylindrical form. Escalators or moving stair cases are to be constructed to reach the tube railways. Only electric traction to be used to avoid the smoke and ventilation problems. Automatic signaling system is to be used. 40

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V. Such a mechanism of the train is to be used that it cannot start until all the doors are closed, and it automatically stops, if the signal is at ‘STOP’ position. This system of railways is used by the London Post Office in transporting mails through a small diameter tunnel with automatic control without any driver. 41

### COMPONENT PARTS OF A PERMANENT WAY :-:

COMPONENT PARTS OF A PERMANENT WAY :- The following are the component parts of a permanent way or a railway track :- Formation or sub grade ; Ballast ; Sleepers ; Rails ; Fixtures and fastenings. All these component parts of a permanent way are illustrated in Fig given below :- 42

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### REQUIREMENTS OF AN IDEAL PERMANENT WAY:

REQUIREMENTS OF AN IDEAL PERMANENT WAY The following are the principal requirements of an ideal permanent way or of a good railway track :- The gauge of the permanent way should be uniform, correct and it should not get altered. Both the rails should be at the same level on tangent (straight) portion of the track. Proper amount of * superelevation should 44

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be provided to the outer rail above the inner rail on curved portion of the track. The permanent way should be sufficiently strong against lateral forces. The curves, provided in the track, should be properly designed. An even and uniform gradient should be provided through out the length of the track. The ** tractive resistance of the track should be minimum. The design of the permanent way should be such that the load of the train is 45

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uniformly distributed on both the rails so as to prevent unequal settlement of the track. It Should provide adequate elasticity in order to prevent the harshness of impacts between the rails and the moving wheel loads of a train. It should be free from excessive rail joints and all the joining should be properly designed and constructed. All the components parts such as rails, sleepers, ballast, fixtures and 46

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fastenings, etc . should satisfy the design requirements. All the fixtures and fastenings such as chairs, bearing plates, fish plates, fish bolts, spikes etc. should be strong enough to withstand the stresses occurring in the track. All the * points and crossings, laid in the permanent way, should be properly designed and carefully constructed. It should be provided with fence near 47

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level crossings and also in urban areas. It should be provided with proper drainage facilities so as to drain off the rain water quickly away from the track. It should be provided with safe and strong bridges coming in the alignment of the track. It should be provided with safe and strong bridges coming in the alignment of the track. It should be so constructed that 48

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repairs and renewals of any of its portion can be carried out without any difficulty. Thanks. Other Example Picture's are given below :- 49

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