HIGHWAY ENGINEERING-Makendran

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

Highway Engineering- Road Construction Materials-Aggregate test-Soil test-Bitumen test and procedures

Comments

Presentation Transcript

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING : 

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Prepared by Er . C. MAKENDRAN M.E.,(PhD) Assistant Professor Department of civil Engineering Aalim Muhammed Salegh College of Engineering

PowerPoint Presentation: 

HIGHWAY MATERIALS AND TESTS LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST CRUSHING TEST IMPACT TEST SHAPE TEST SOUNDNESS TEST SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST WATER ABSORPTION TEST STRIPPING VALUE TEST 1. PENETRATION TEST 2. DUCTLITY TEST 3. BINDER CONTANT TEST 4. VISCOSITY TEST 5. FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST 6. SOFTNING POINT TEST 7. LOSS ON HEATING TEST 8. WATER CONTANT TEST 9. SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST 10. SOLUBILITY TEST 11. FLOAT TEST 1.CBR TEST 2.FIELD DENSITY TEST SOIL TEST BITUMINOUS TEST AGGREGATE TEST

SOIL TEST: 

SOIL TEST CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST(CBR) FIELD DENSITY TEST

California Bearing Ratio Test : 

California Bearing Ratio Test California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test was developed by the California Division of Highway as a method of classifying and evaluating soil-sub grade and base course materials for flexible pavements. CBR test, an empirical test, has been used to determine the material properties for pavement design. Empirical tests measure the strength of the material and are not a true representation of the resilient modulus. It is a penetration test wherein a standard piston, having an area of 3 in2 (or 50 mm diameter), is used to penetrate the soil at a standard rate of 1.25 mm/minute. The pressure up to a penetration of 12.5 mm and it's ratio to the bearing value of a standard crushed rock is termed as the CBR.

CBR CONTD…..: 

CBR CONTD….. In most cases, CBR decreases as the penetration increases. The ratio at 2.5 mm penetration is used as the CBR. In some case, the ratio at 5 mm may be greater than that at 2.5 mm. If this occurs, the ratio at 5 mm should be used. The CBR is a measure of resistance of a material to penetration of standard plunger under controlled density and moisture conditions. The test procedure should be strictly adhered if high degree of reproducibility is desired. The CBR test may be conducted in re-molded or undisturbed specimen in the laboratory. The test is simple and has been extensively investigated for field correlations of flexible pavement thickness requirement.

Test Procedure : 

Test Procedure • The laboratory CBR apparatus consists of a mould 150 mm diameter with a base plate and a collar, a loading frame and dial gauges for measuring the penetration values and the expansion on soaking. • The specimen in the mould is soaked in water for four days and the swelling and water absorption values are noted. The surcharge weight is placed on the top of the specimen in the mould and the assembly is placed under the plunger of the loading frame .

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Load is applied on the sample by a standard plunger with dia of 50 mm at the rate of 1.25 mm/min. A load penetration curve is drawn. The load values on standard crushed stones are 1370 kg and 2055 kg at 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm penetrations respectively. • CBR value is expressed as a percentage of the actual load causing the penetrations of 2.5 mm or 5.0 mm to the standard loads mentioned above. Therefore ,

CBR CONTD…: 

CBR CONTD… Two values of CBR will be obtained. If the value of 2.5 mm is greater than that of 5.0 mm penetration, the former is adopted. If the CBR value obtained from test at 5.0 mm penetration is higher than that at 2.5 mm, then the test is to be repeated for checking. If the check test again gives similar results, then higher value obtained at 5.0 mm penetration is reported as the CBR value . The average CBR value of three test specimens is reported as the CBR value of the sample.

CBR TEST APPARATS: 

CBR TEST APPARATS

CBR MACHINE SETUP WITH CBR SAMPLE: 

CBR MACHINE SETUP WITH CBR SAMPLE

CBR APPARATUS : 

CBR APPARATUS Mould 150 mm diameter with a base plate with a collar, A loading frame with the cylindrical Plunger of 50 mm diameter. Dial gauge for measuring the expansion on soaking and the penetration values.

CBR APPARATUS DETAILS: 

CBR APPARATUS DETAILS

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST: 

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST A cylindrical plunger of 50 mm diameter to penetrate a pavement component material at 1.2 mm/minute. The load value to cause 2.5mm and 5mm penetration are recorded, These loads are expressed as percentages of standard load values at respective deformation levels to obtain CBR value.

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST: 

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST The standard load values obtained from the average of a large number of tests on crushed stones are 1370 kg and 2055 kg (70 and 105 kg/cm2)respectively at 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm penetration. The specimen in the mould is subjected to four days soaking and the swelling and water absorption values are noted.

AGGREGATE TEST: 

AGGREGATE TEST LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST CRUSHING TEST IMPACT TEST SHAPE TEST SOUNDNESS TEST SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST WATER ABSORPTION TEST STRIPPING VALUE TEST

LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST: 

LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST

LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST : 

LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST AIM: To determine the abrasion value of given aggregate sample by conducting Los Angles abrasion test. Apparatus required : Los Angles apparatus, IS Sieve, Weighting Balance

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Procedure: Clean and dry aggregate sample confirming to one of the grading A to G is used for the test. Aggregate weighing 5kg for grading A, B, C or D and 10Kg for grading E, F or G may be taken as test specimen and placed in the cylinder. The abrasive charge is also chosen in accordance and placed in the cylinder of the machine, and cover is fixed to make dust tight.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

4. The machine is rotated at a speed of 30 to 33 revolutions per minute. 5. The machine is rotated for 500 revolutions for grading A, B, C and D, for grading E, F and G, it shall be rotated for 1000 revolutions. 6. After the desired number of revolutions the machine is stopped and the material is discharged from the machine taking care to take out entire stone dust.

LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST: 

LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST 7. Using a sieve of size larger than 1.70mm IS sieve, the material is first separated into two parts and the finer position is taken out and sieved further on a 1.7mm IS sieve. 8. Let the original weight of aggregate be W1gm, weight of aggregate retained on 1.70mm IS sieve after the test be W2gm.

LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST: 

LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST

LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST: 

LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST

IMPACT TEST: 

IMPACT TEST Aim: To determine the aggregate impact value of given aggregates Apparatus required: Impact testing machine, cylinder, tamping rod, IS Sieve 125.mm, 10mm and 2.36mm, and Weight balance.

IMPACT TEST: 

IMPACT TEST

Procedure: 

Procedure The test sample consists of aggregates passing 12.5mm sieve and retained on 10mm sieve and dried in an oven for 4 hours at a temperature of 100 o C to 110 o C The aggregates are filled up to about 1/3 full in the cylindrical measure and tamped 25 times with rounded end of the tamping rod

IMPACT TEST Contd….: 

IMPACT TEST Contd…. The rest of the cylindrical measure is filled by two layers and each layer being tamped 25 times. The overflow of aggregates in cylindrically measure is cut off by tamping rod using it has a straight edge. Then the entire aggregate sample in a measuring cylinder is weighed nearing to 0.01gm

IMPACT TEST contd..: 

IMPACT TEST contd.. The aggregates from the cylindrical measure are carefully transferred into the cup which is firmly fixed in position on the base plate of machine. Then it is tamped 25 times.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

The hammer is raised until its lower face is 38cm above the upper surface of aggregate in the cup and allowed to fall freely on the aggregates. The test sample is subjected to a total of 15 such blows each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second

IMPACT TEST contd..: 

IMPACT TEST contd.. The crushed aggregate is than removed from the cup and the whole of it is sieved on 2.366mm sieve until no significant amount passes. The fraction passing the sieve is weighed accurate to 0.1gm. Repeat the above steps with other fresh sample.

IMPACT TEST contd..: 

IMPACT TEST contd.. Let the original weight of the oven dry sample be W1gm and the weight of fraction passing 2.36mm IS sieve be W2gm. Then aggregate impact value is expressed as the % of fines formed in terms of the total weight of the sample.

Aggregate impact value: 

Aggregate impact value S.NO NATURE OF STONE AGGREGATE VALUE 1 Exceptionally Strong < 10% 2 Strong 10% to 20 % 3 Satisfactory 20% to 30% 4 Weak for Road Surfacing >30%

Soundness test: 

Soundness test To assess the resistance of the aggregate to weathering. The test carried out by immersing dry and clean specimen of specified size range in saturated solution of either sodium sulphate or magnesium sulphate. It is taken out and oven dried at 105c to 110 c to a constant weight.

Soundness test: 

Soundness test As a rule, the average loss in weight after 10 cycles should not exceed 12 % (when tested with sodium sulphate) and 18 % (when tested with magnesium sulphate )

SHAPE TEST : 

SHAPE TEST The shape test carried out to get a rough idea of the relative shapes of the aggregate the elevation of the particles is made form of the following three terms: Angularity number Elongation index Flakiness index

Elongation index : 

Elongation index Objectives The objective of the test is the determination of the elongation of the elongation index of aggregates . The elongation index of aggregates is the percentage by weight of particles whosegreatest dimension (length) is greater than 1 4/5 times their mean dimension.

Procedures of Elongation index : 

Procedures of Elongation index Three samples of aggregates weighing 2.5 kg each are prepared- the aggregates of the first sample passing 50mm BS sieve and retained on 37.5mm BS sieve, those of the second sample passing 37.5mm BS sieve and retained on the 20mm BS sieve.2. Each sample is gauged in the turn for length on the metal gauge.3. The retained material of each sample is weighed.

Elongation Index Apparatus: 

Elongation Index Apparatus

Elongation Index Apparatus: 

Elongation Index Apparatus

Calculation : 

Calculation Elongation Index = [ Nos. retained/total Nos. Aggregates ]* Take average for the Flakiness Index Calculation

Flakiness index: 

Flakiness index

BITUMINOUS TEST: 

BITUMINOUS TEST PENETRATION TEST DUCTLITY TEST BINDER CONTANT TEST VISCOSITY TEST FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST SOFTNING POINT TEST LOSS ON HEATING TEST WATER CONTANT TEST SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST SOLUBILITY TEST FLOAT TEST

PENETRATION TEST: 

PENETRATION TEST AIM OF THE PENETRATION TEST : To find out the hardness or softness of bitumen. Grade of bitumen .

PENETRATION TEST: 

PENETRATION TEST The test carried out with a standard penetro meter with a needle loaded with 100 gms, The sample to be tested is maintained at a constant temperature of 25 degree Celsius at the start of the test. The needle is vertically touches on the bitumen sample.

PENETRATION TEST: 

PENETRATION TEST The needle is then released and allowed to penetrate into the sample under the full action of the load. The penetration at the end of time 5 seconds is measured .

PENETRATION TEST: 

PENETRATION TEST

PENETRATION TEST: 

PENETRATION TEST

PENETRATION TEST: 

PENETRATION TEST The bitumen grade is specified in terms of penetration value. The bitumen of grade 80/100 means that the range of penetration value of the material is between 80 and 100. Depends upon the climatic conditions and type of construction, bitumen are used.

IRC RECOMMANDATIONS: 

IRC RECOMMANDATIONS Bitumen grades 30/40, 60/70,and 80/100 Hot climates - Lower penetration grades of bitumen are preferred. Cold climate - higher penetration grades of bitumen are preferred.

DUCTILITY TEST: 

DUCTILITY TEST To determine the elongation or ductility of bitumen. The sample is cast in standard briquette mould. Cross section at the minimum width is 10mmx10mm. The ductility value is expressed as the distance in centimeters.

DUCTILITY TEST: 

DUCTILITY TEST The test is conducted at the temperature is 27 o + 0.5 o At the rate of pull of 50mm + 2.5mm /minute The desirable ductility value of bitumen should be less than 50 cm.

DUCTLITY TEST: 

DUCTLITY TEST

DUCTILITY TEST: 

DUCTILITY TEST

VISCOCITY TEST: 

VISCOCITY TEST Aim : To determine the viscosity of bituminous binder.

VISCOCITY TEST: 

VISCOCITY TEST

Procedure. : 

Procedure . Adjust the tar viscometer so that the top of the tar cup is levelled. Select the test temperature. Heat the water in water bath to the temperature specified for the test and maintain it within ±0.1 o C of the specified temperature throughout the duration of test. Rotate the stirrer gently at frequent intervals or perfectly continuously Clean the tar cup orifice of the viscometer with a suitable solvent and dry thoroughly

VISCOCITY TEST: 

VISCOCITY TEST Warm and stir the material under examination to 20 o C above the temperature specified for test and cool, while continuing the stirring. When the temperature falls slightly above the specified temperature, pour the tar into the cup until the leveling peg on the valve rod is just immersed when the latter is vertical.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Pour into the graduated receiver 20ml of mineral oil, or one percent by weight solution of soft soap, and place it under the orifice of the tar cup. Place the other thermometer in the tar and stir until the temperature is within ±0.1 o C of the specified temperature. When this temperature has been reached, suspend the thermometer coaxially with the cup and with its bulb approximately at the geometric center of the tar.

VISCOCITY TEST: 

VISCOCITY TEST Allow the assembled apparatus to stand for five minutes during which period the thermometer reading should remain within 0.05 o C of the specified temperature. Remove the thermometer and quickly remove any excess of tar so that the final level is on the central line of the leveling peg when the valve is in vertical position.

VISCOCITY TEST contd….: 

VISCOCITY TEST contd…. Lift the valve and suspend it on valve support Start the stop watch when the reading in the cylinder is 25ml and stop it when it is 75ml. note the time in seconds Report the viscosity as the time taken in seconds by 50ml of tar to flow out at the temperature specified for the test.

FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST: 

FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST Aim : To determine the flash and dire point of a given bituminous material. Apparatus required : Pensky-martens closed cup tester, thermometer, heating source, flame exposure.

FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST: 

FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST

Procedure: : 

Procedure : All parts of the cup are cleaned and dried thoroughly before the test is started. The material is filled in the cup up to a mark. The lid is placed to close the cup in a closed system. All accessories including thermometer of the specified range are suitably fixed.

FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST: 

FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST The bitumen sample is then heated. The test flame is lit and adjusted in such a way that the size of a bed is of 4mm diameter. The heating of sample is done at a rate of 5 o to 6 o C per minute. During heating the sample the stirring is done at a rate of approximately 60 revolutions per minute.

FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST: 

FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST The test flame is applied at intervals depending upon the expected flash and fire points and corresponding temperatures at which the material shows the sign of flash and fire are noted.

LOSS ON HEATING TEST: 

LOSS ON HEATING TEST The bitumen is heated ,the volatiles present in it get evaporated and bitumen becomes hard. The sample of about 50 gms is taken and weighed It is heated for 5 hours at a temperature of 163 in a special oven. The specimen is taken out and it is weighed again,

LOSS ON HEATING TEST: 

LOSS ON HEATING TEST The loss in weight due to heating is expressed as a percentage by weight of original sample. The bitumen to be used in pavement mix should not indicate more than one percent loss on heating.

SOFTNING POINT TEST : 

SOFTNING POINT TEST Aim : To determine the softening point of bitumen. Heat the material to a temperature between 75 o – 100 o C above its softening point, stir until, it is completely fluid and free from air bubbles and water

SOFTNING POINT TEST contd.. : 

SOFTNING POINT TEST contd.. If necessary filter it through IS sieve 30. Place the rings, previously heated to a temperature approximating to that of the molten material. On a metal plate which has been coated with a mixture of equal parts of glycerine and dextrin. After cooling for 30 minutes in air, level the material in the ring by removing the excess with a warmed, sharp knife.

SOFTNING POINT TEST contd.. : 

SOFTNING POINT TEST contd.. Assemble the apparatus with the rings, thermometer and ball guides in position. Fill the bath with distilled water to a height of 50mm above the upper surface of the rings. The starting temperature should be 5 o C

SOFTNING POINT TEST: 

SOFTNING POINT TEST

SOFTNING POINT TEST contd.. : 

SOFTNING POINT TEST contd.. Apply heat to the bath and stir the liquid so that the temperature rises at a uniform rate of 5±0.5 o C per minute Note down the temperature when any of the steel ball with bituminous coating touches the bottom plate.

BINDER CONTANT TEST : 

BINDER CONTANT TEST Aim: To determine quantity of bitumen in hot-mix paving mixtures and pavement samples Apparatus required:

PROCEDURE OF CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTOR TEST: 

PROCEDURE OF CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTOR TEST Weight a 1000g sample of asphalt mix. With the fork break the sample down to small pieces and heat the sample to about 115 o C. Place the sample in the bowl and weight it. Cover the sample in the bowl with benzene or trichloroethane and allow it to soak for one hour.

CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTOR TEST contd..: 

CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTOR TEST contd.. 5) Weight filter ring. Place it around the edge of the bowl and clamp a lid on the bowl. 6) Place the bowl in a centrifuge and rotate it gradually to increase the speed upto 3600rpm. Rotate until the solvent ceases to flow from the outlet. 7) Stop the centrifuge, add 200ml of trichoroethane or benezene and rotate it again.

CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTOR TEST contd….: 

CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTOR TEST contd…. 8) Repeat the procedure until the extract is no longer cloudy and if fairly light in color. 9) Remove the filter from the bowl and dry in air. 10) Brush the loose particles from the filter into the bowl.

CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTOR TEST contd…: 

CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTOR TEST contd… 11) Dry the filter to constant weight in a oven at 98 o C to 105 o C 12) Dry the contents of the bowl on a steam bath and then to constant in an oven at 98 0 C to 105 o C 13) Obtain the weight of the filter and bowl with dry aggregates

SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST FOR BITUMEN : 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST FOR BITUMEN Aim: To determine the specific gravity of given Bituminous material. Apparatus required : Specific gravity bottle balance and distilled water.

Procedure of specific Gravity Test : 

Procedure of specific Gravity Test The clean, dried specific gravity bottle is weighed let that be W1gm Than it is filled with fresh distilled water and then kept in water bath for at least half an hour at temperature 27 o C±0.1 o C. The bottle is then removed and cleaned from outside. The specific gravity bottle containing distilled water is now weighed. Let this be W2gm.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Then the specific gravity bottle is emptied and cleaned. The bituminous material is heated to a pouring temperature and the material is poured half the bottle, by taking care to prevent entry of air bubbles. Then it is weighed. Let this be W3gm. The remaining space in specific gravity bottle is filled with distilled water at 27 o C and is weighed. Let this be W4gm.

Specific gravity of bituminous material is given by formula.: 

Specific gravity of bituminous material is given by formula . (W3 – W1) = ------------------------------- (W2 – W1) – (W4 – W3)

PowerPoint Presentation: 

THANKING YOU