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A Powerpoint presentation on INDIA-SIZE AND LOCATION by Akshay Kannan.P.R

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SOCIAL SCIENCE PROJECT INDIA- SIZE AND LOCATION B Y : A KSHAY K ANNAN .P.R C LASS -IX-A K ENDRIYA V IDYALAYA A DOOR

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India is one of the ancient civilisations in the world. It has achieved multi-faceted socio-economic progress during the last five decades. It has moved forward displaying remarkable progress in the field of agriculture, industry, technology and overall economic development. India has also contributed significantly to the making of world history.

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India is vast country. Lying entirely in the Northern hemisphere the main land extends between latitudes 8 4’N and 37 6’N and longitudes 68 7’E and 97 25’E. The tropic of Cancer(23 30’N) divides the country into almost two equal parts. To the southeast and southwest of the mainland, lie the Andaman and Nicobar islands and the Lakshadweep islands in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea respectively. L OCATION

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The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million square km. India’s total area accounts for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world. India is the seventh largest country in the world. India has a land boundary of about 15,200km and the total length of the coast line of the mainland including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep is 7,516.6km. India bounded by the young fold mountains in the northwest, north and north east. South of about 22 north latitude, it begins to taper, and extends towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it into two seas, the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on its east . S IZE

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The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the mainland is about 30. Despite this fact the east-west extent appears to be smaller than the north-south extent. From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh there is a time lag of two hours. Hence, time along the standard Meridian of India(82 30’E) passing through Mirzapur (in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time for the whole country. The latitudinal extent influences the duration of the day and night, as one moves from south to north .

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The Indian landmass has a central location between the East and the West Asia. India is a southward extension of the Asian Continent. The trans Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the West and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India. The Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast and with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast. No other country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India has and indeed, it is India’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean which justifies the naming of an Ocean after it. I NDIA AND THE W ORLD

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India’s contacts with the World have continued through the ages but its relationships through the land routes are much older than its maritime contacts. The various passes across the mountains in the north have provided passages to the ancient travellers, while the oceans restricted such interaction for long time. These routes have contributed in the exchange of ideas and commodities since ancient times. The ideas of the Upanishads and the Ramayana, the stories of Panchtantra, the Indian numerals and the decimal system thus could reach many parts of the world. The spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India to different countries. On the other hand, the influence of Greek sculpture, and the architectural styles of the dome and minarets from West Asia can be seen in different parts of our country.

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India occupies an important strategic position in South Asia. India has 28 states and 7 union territories. India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east. Our southern neighbours across the sea consist of the two island countries, namely Sri Lanka and Maldives. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar while Maldives Islands are situated to the south of the Lakshadweep Islands. India has had strong geographical and historical links with its neighbours. I NDIA’S N EIGHBOURS

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The southernmost point of the Indian Union- ‘Indira Point’ got submerged under the sea water in 2004 during Tsunami. Since, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, India’s distance from Europe has been reduced by 7,000km. Before 1947, there were two types of states in India- the provinces and the Princely states. Provinces were ruled directly by British officials who were appointed by the Viceroy. Princely states were ruled by local, hereditary rulers, who acknowledged sovereignity in return for local autonomy . S OME F ACTS

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Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below. The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through Rajasthan Orissa Chhattisgarh Tripura Ans: Orissa The eastern most longitude of India is 97 25’E 68 7’E 77 6’E 82 32’E Ans: 97 25’E E XERCISE

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Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim have common frontiers with China Bhutan Nepal Myanmar Ans: Nepal If you intend to visit Kavarati during you summer vacations, which one of the following Union territories of India you will be going to Puducherry Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Diu and Daman Ans: Lakshadweep

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My friend hails from a country which does not share land boundary with India. Identify the country. Bhutan Tajikistan Bangladesh Nepal Ans: Tajikistan

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2. Answer the following questions briefly. Name the group of islands lying in the Arabian sea. Ans: Lakshadweep islands. Name the countries which are larger than India. Ans: Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, Australia. Which island group of India lies to its south-east? Ans: Andaman and Nicobar islands. Which island countries are our southern neighbours? Ans: Maldives and Sri Lanka. 3.The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west but the watches show the same time. How does this happen? Ans: The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west. This happens because the extension between the two states is 30 and 1 = 4 minute. So there is difference. So 82 30’E is chosen as the standard meridian of India.

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4. The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why? Ans : The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance because: It has the longest coastal area. A lot of port are there, where the ships of other countries can reach easily. India is the central location of east Asia and west Asia. It helps in transfer of trade, ideas, goods and culture among countries.