HARMONES USED IN FOOD PRODUCING ANIMALS

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HARMONES USED IN FOOD PRODUCING ANIMALS:

HARMONES USED IN FOOD PRODUCING ANIMALS BY: V.MAHESH 11171ROO43. UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: Miss.NAVYA MADAM Assistant Professor Department of Pharmacology

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Hormones occur naturally in living animals and even in some fruits and vegetables. The use of supplemental hormones,is a tool that some farmers chose to use and are concerned about the implications to animal welfare, as well as the safety of the food they consume.

BACKGROUND:

BACKGROUND Hormones are often confused with antibiotics Hormones are naturally occurring chemicals produced in an organ of the body carried by body fluid to other organ or tissue. Eg: insulin is a hormone that lowers blood glucose. Antibiotics are substances that kill or inhibit the growth or multiplication of microbes.

PERSPECTIVES:

PERSPECTIVES Hormones occur naturally in farm animals and even some produce. In beef cattle, for example, the naturally circulating levels of hormones may not be different than those in supplemented cattle. Eg: B ovine S omatotropin (BST) which is injected in beef cattle to increase milk production.

BENEFICIAL USE:

BENEFICIAL USE Supplemental hormones may be safely used for both the raising of beef cattle, and in cows for milk production. Supplemental hormones can be given to dairy cows to maintain production. Cattle ranchers use hormones to improve how animals’ bodies turn food into lean muscle.

FOOD ANIMALS THAT RECEIVE HORMONES:

FOOD ANIMALS THAT RECEIVE HORMONES DAIRY Bovine somatotropin ( B ST) is an animal drug approved by FDA to increase milk production in dairy cows. This drug is based on the growth hormone naturally produced in cattle.

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BEEF Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved steroid hormone drugs for beef cattle and sheep, including natural estrogen , progesterone , testosterone , and their synthetic versions . These drugs increase the animals’ growth rate, the efficiency by which they convert the feed they eat into meat, and the leanness of their meat.

HARMONES INTRODUCED INTO FOOD PRODUCTS:

HARMONES INTRODUCED INTO FOOD PRODUCTS NATURALLY OCCURING HARMONES Some of the approved drugs are naturally produced such as: E stradiol (estrogen) Progesterone Testosterone.

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SYNTHETIC HARMONES Some of the approved drugs are synthetic versions of the natural hormones, such as: T renbolone acetate Zeranol.

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SHEEPS AND GOATS Hormones are used to synchronize reproductive cycles and aid during labor. PORK No hormones are used to promote the growth of pigs. hormones can be given to assist sows during birth. They receive oxytocin to aid the sow during labor. POULTRY No hormones are used to promote the growth of poultry.

HOW ARE HORMONES INTRODUCED INTO THE ANIMALS :

HOW ARE HORMONES INTRODUCED INTO THE ANIMALS Steroid hormones are usually released into the animal from a pellet (ear implant) that is put under the skin of the ear. The ears of the animals are thrown away at slaughter. Improper use of pellet implants in other parts of the animal can result in higher levels of hormone residues to remain in the edible meat . Melengestrol acetate is also available in a form that can be added to animal feed. Dairy cattle may be injected under the skin with rbGH. This hormone is available in packages of single dose injections to reduce chances of accidental overdose

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Do hormones remain in the milk or meat of treated animals ? The levels of naturally produced hormones vary from animal to animal, and a range in these levels is known to be normal. Because it is not possible to differentiate between the hormones produced naturally by the animal and those used to treat the animal, it is difficult to determine exactly how much of the hormone used for treatment remains in the meat or the milk. Studies indicate that if correct treatment and slaughter procedures are followed, the levels of these hormones may be slightly higher in the treated animal's meat or milk. Scientists are currently trying to develop better methods to measure steroid hormone residues left in edible meat from a treated animal .

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Can eating meat from hormone-treated animals affect breast cancer risk? Evidence does not exist to answer this question. The amount of steroid hormone that is eaten through meat of a treated animal is negligible compared to what the human body produces each day. The breast cancer risk of women who eat meat from hormone-treated animals has not been compared with the risk of women who eat meat from untreated animals.

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Can drinking milk, or eating dairy products from hormone-treated animals affect breast cancer risk? Once again, evidence does not exist to answer this question. Use of rbGH for dairy cattle has been in practice in US for only six to seven years. Breast cancer can take many years to develop. It is too early to study the breast cancer risk of women who drink milk and eat milk products from hormone-treated animals.

CONSEQUENCES OF EATING HORMONE INJECTED FOODS:

CONSEQUENCES OF EATING HORMONE INJECTED FOODS Headaches Muscular trembling(especially in hands) Cramps Anxiety Insomnia Sweating Appetite increase Nausea Palpitation Hypertension

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION Hereby I conclude by saying hormones when induced in food producing animals leads to various consequences. Though they may produce few benefits, more are the disadvantages. People effected by these hormones show the symptoms at later stages where it can be very difficult to cure the disease.

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES Campana , W.M., and C.R. Baumrucker. Hormones and growth factors in bovine milk. In: Handbook of Milk Composition. R.G. Jensen (Ed). New York: Academic Press, 1995, pg. 476-494 . Fritsche, S., and H. Steinhart. Occurrence of hormonally active compounds in food: a review. Eur . Food Res. Technol. 209: 153-179, 1999. Hartmann, S., M. Lacorn, and H. Steinhart. Natural occurrence of steroid hormones in food. Food Chem. 62(1): 7-20, 1998.

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4. Vicini J. et al. Survey of retail milk composition as affected by label claims regarding farm management practices. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2008, 108 th Edition, Pg no: 1198-1203. 5 . Etherton, T.D., P.M. Kris- Etherton , and E.W. Mills. Recombinant bovine and porcine somatotropin : safety and benefits of these biotechnologies. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1993, 93 rd Edition, Pg no: 177-180. 6. Juskevich , J.C., and C.G. Guyer . Bovine growth hormone: human food safety evaluation. Science.1990, 249 th Edition, Pg no: 875-884.

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