Software's used in Experimental Pharmacology (CAL)


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Software's used FOR EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY v.Mahesh 11171r0043 Guide: Dr.T.K.V.Kesava Rao Ph.D. Professor Department of Pharmaceutics Bharat Institute of Technology


Introduction Experimentation on animal serves as a major tool for the advancement of medical, pharmaceutical and biological sciences since animals are much similar to human systems All the process require animals to be incised, dissected and sometimes have to be killed . An emerging trend as an alternative to animal experiments is use of computer simulations to duplicate live dissections.

prevention of cruelty to animals Act 1960 :

prevention of cruelty to animals Act 1960 According to prevention of cruelty to animals Act 1960 . The experiments should as for as possible be performed while the animals are under the influence of an anaesthetics and if the animals are so injured during the course of experimentation that their recovery wood involve in serious suffering, they should be destroyed while still insensible . If it is possible to substitute the use of animals by devices such as models, films, charts, books, etc.., such substitution should be maid. Experiments on animals should not be performed just for the seek of acquiring manual skill.

Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) in pharmacology :

Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) in pharmacology Computer-assisted learning is almost similar to the experiential model of learning. Demonstration of the effect of drugs on various models like tissues or on whole animal is an integral and essential part of practical pharmacology teaching for medical students. So it should be the constant effort of a pharmacology teacher to bring down the usage of animals and increase the teaching quality in pharmacy . Like a laboratory class, it must be fully integrated into a module if real benefits are to be obtained.

Uses of cal:

Uses of cal Pharmacy practical with demonstration of various preparations. Demonstrations of routes of drug administration using colorful pictures. Learning by role play in therapeutics. Therapeutic teaching with visual aids. Teaching pharmacology theory without visual aids. Pharmacokinetic learning with the help of CAL software . Pharmacodynamic learning with the help of CAL software. Community pharmacological case studies. Clinical pharmacology case studies.

CAL techniques :

CAL techniques Film and video Historically films have been used to a large degree within life science education to illustrate those parts of the curriculum that particularly benefit from visual representation, that need further explanation, or that are hard to show in the lab. Recent digital technology presents new opportunities to creatively develop and maximize the potential of video-based teaching resources in conjunction with computer software. The digitizing of video is simple and low cost.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Models, mannekins and simulators These non-animal alternatives comprise both synthetic training objects designed to simulate organs, limbs or whole animals, and apparatus for training and simulation of physiological functions or clinical skills and scenarios. Multimedia computer simulation The emergence and application of computer technologies have revolutionized science and society as a whole. High-speed processors and powerful software have transformed the way that data is gathered and processed, how biological processes are modeled and explained, and how knowledge is transferred.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In vitro labs Software which includes a virtual laboratory presents a range of equipment on-screen and may offer a very high degree of interactivity. Typically, such programs simulate classical animal preparations and experiments within physiology, pharmacology and critical care. Tutorial-type programs These programs present, in an interactive and involving manner, information about a discrete pharmacological topic. Since they usually cover only a small area they are relatively easy to integrate into modules of diverse content and level. In many of the programs the path through the information can be chosen by the student who may choose to study in greater or lesser depth.

general Software’s used in experimental pharmacology :

general Software’s used in experimental pharmacology Ex-Pharm and X- cology

X-cology / Ex-Pharm:

X- cology / Ex-Pharm This software (developed in Multimedia Director, Flash and visual basic for windows) displays complete video demonstrations of different procedures like isolation and mounting of animal tissues followed by on screen interactive interface to study the effects of various drugs on the isolated tissues. It simulates / demonstrates experiments causing undue pain to animals. The presentation is made user friendly and self explanatory. This software can minimize the use of experimental animals in routine practical classes. It provides a tool to the teachers to clearly convey the required details on animal experiments.

Materials and methods:

Materials and methods The experimental animals The equipment's Experimental techniques The experimental section

PowerPoint Presentation:

X- Cology software demonstrating tissue response on kymograph.

General experiments:

General experiments Effects of drugs on rabbit eye Effects of drugs on isolated frog heart DRC of acetyl choline on frog rectus abdominis muscle DRC of histamine on Guinea pig Bio assay of Oxytocin by interpolation method Frog heart dissection

Benefits :

Benefits Avoids use of animals. Many experiments can be demonstrated in a short time. Eliminate (or) decrease cost of maintaining animals and animal house No experimental errors are seen as in laboratory exercises. Performance (or) usage/test reports available to administrator (or) Teachers for student evaluation Achieving learning objectives easily.


Conclusion Avoids the life sacrifice of animals. Less time consuming when compared to general labs. Easy to use


Reference Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence Text Book Patil CR. Multimedia software for demonstrating animal experiments in pharmacology . Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation, 2007, 14( Spl ), 329-332. Patel JL, Patel NJ, Praful D, Bharadia , Patel NJ, Patel HR, Lele Y, Dhavan J. Development of simulation software for perfused frog’s heart experiments for B. Pharm. pharmacology practicals , Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2004, 38(3), 141-144.

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