SCJP note Part IV (of IV)

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My study note of Sun Certificate of Java Programmer

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By: coolkumar22 (90 month(s) ago)

An Excellent summarized compilation indeed ! - Especially useful for last minute references ! - Thanks a mill And Good Luck for your future endeavours !

By: beefchongfan (107 month(s) ago)

Thank you very much!

Presentation Transcript

SCJP Exam Notes(Part IV) : 

SCJP Exam Notes(Part IV) By Maggie Zhou June, 2008

-- 7.4 --Generic Types : 

-- 7.4 --Generic Types 6.3 Write code that uses the generic versions of the Collections API, in particular the Set, List, and Map interfaces and implementation classes. Recognize the limitations of the non-generic Collections API and how to refactor code to use the generic versions. 6.4 Develop code that makes proper use of type parameters in class/interface declarations, instance variables, method arguments, and return types; and write generic methods or methods that make use of wildcard types and understand the similarities and differences between these two approaches.

Basic concepts : 

3 Basic concepts <> means generics new feature in Java 5 Parameterized type generics means more type safety More problem are caught at compile time instead of runtime aren't just for collections Create Generics List<xxxx> xxxxList = new ArrayList<xxxx>() Method: void foo(List<xxxx> list) X.foo(xxxList) type safe (generic) and non-type safe (non-generic/pre-Java 5) collections to still work together mixing non-generic and generic code together

Non-generic / Generic collection : 

4 Non-generic / Generic collection List myList = new ArrayList(); //old style A non-generic collection can hold any kind of object A non-generic collection is quite happy to hold anything that is NOT a primitive. Having no way to guarantee collection type Get objects out of the collection could have only one kind of return type—java.lang.Object ++ Always need cast it The cast could fail at runtime due to non-guarantee type List<String> myList = new ArrayList<String>(); // JAVA 5 generic style generic collection guarantees put IN and comes OUT Do not need cast Can declare a type parameter for a method argument void takeListOfstrings(List<String> strings) Old style compare the generic code List myList = new ArrayList(); // old-style, non-generic == List<Object> myList = new ArrayList<Object>();

Generics and Legacy Code : 

5 Generics and Legacy Code Old List myList = new ArrayList(); Generic generics as strictly a compile-time protection NONE of this protection exists at runtime. List<Integer> myList = new ArrayList<Integer>(); public List<String> changeStrings(ArrayList<String> s) { } The earlier non-generic version and performed a cast to get things out: Integer i = (Integer) list.get(0); ++ No problem with put into, but put out and use it will cause problem the problem of putting the wrong thing into a typed (generic) collection does not show up at the time you actually do the add() to the collection. It only shows up later, when you try to use something in the list and it doesn't match what you were expecting.

Mixing Generic and Non-Generic Collections : 

6 Mixing Generic and Non-Generic Collections In order to support legacy code, Java 5 allows your newer type safe code to make use of older code( is forced into ) If the legacy insert() method try to add a object(may be a un-expect object), the compiler generated a warning: javac TestBadLegacy.java Note: TestBadLegacy.java uses unchecked or unsafe operations. Note: Recompile with -Xlint:unchecked for details.  javac -Xlint:unchecked TestBadLegacy.java TestBadLegacy.java:17: warning: [unchecked] unchecked call to add(E) as a member of the raw type java.util.List list.add(new String("42")); ^ 1 warning ++ Compiler warnings are NOT considered a compiler failure for test, you just see it as successful compile JVM has no type information Even insert un-expect object, the program still run without problem. All the generic code is strictly for the compiler

Polymorphism and Generics : 

7 Polymorphism and Generics Polymorphic assignments applies only to the base type, not the generic type parameter. For the type of the variable declaration, the generics type must be exactly match, even can not use supertype or subtype Array is ok for accept the subtype Array has runtime exception (ArrayStoreException) to prevent you from putting the wrong type of object into an array CANNOT pass an ArrayList<subtype> to an argument of ArrayList<type> ++ JVM KNOWS the type of arrays, but does NOT know the type of the collections.

Wildcard : 

8 Wildcard ++ <? extends Xxx> Can let anything pass CanNOT add anything into this collection. Use extends represents BOTH subclasses and interface implementations <? supter Xxx> accept Xxx and super types of Xxx Can add Xxx List<?> vs. List<Object> <?> means any type + cannot add anything to it == <? Extends Object> <Object> means can take only List of Object ++ Only for reference declarations (including arguments, variables, return types, and so on). ++ Cannot be used as the type parameter: new Xxx<type>, but not new Xxx<?>

Generic Declarations (1) : 

9 Generic Declarations (1) public interface List<E> template E = elements, used when the template is a collection <T> type, uses for other main convention ++ Don’t forget: import java.util.*; Create a Generic Class provide general template public class xxxxGeneric<T> Can specify the range: <T extends Xxx> ++ Create a Generic Method Declare the type variable BEFORE the return type of method Public <T> void xxxXxx (T t) {} If the type is declared by class, then it is ok without declare before return type

Generic Declarations (2) : 

10 Generic Declarations (2) Also can be used in: / declaration: Variable: T an_instance_Variable Constructor Arg: Foo(T constructor_Arg) {} Method Arg: void bar(T method_Arg) {} Method return: T bar() {} can use more than one parameterized type in a declaration: <T, X> ++ ? works when declaring a reference for a variable, ++? does NOT work for generic class and method declarations NO!  public class NumberHolder<?> ( ? aNum; } Yes  public class NumberHolder<T> ( T aNum; } For class declaration NO!  public class NumberHolder<T super Xxx> ( T aNum; } Yes  public class NumberHolder<T extends Xxx> ( T aNum; }

++ <?extends Xxx> vs. <? super Xxx> : 

11 ++ <?extends Xxx> vs. <? super Xxx> Decleration as <? super Xxx> Specify the type in method call with Xxx or Xxx’s super type Then, can add the specified type’s sub type (satisfy IS-A) Decleration as <? extends Xxx> Specify the type in method call with Xxx or Xxx’s sub type Then, can not add any type into it. But why? The reason is: JVM doesn’t know the real specified type, but it knows which can be, so JVM gives you very strict condition: the adding type must suit all the sub type: which is no one can be.

-- 8 --Inner Classes : 

-- 8 --Inner Classes Inner classes Method-local inner classes Anonymous inner classes Static nested classes

Inner Classes (1) : 

13 Inner Classes (1) Inner classes let you define one class within another. Special relationship" an inner class instance shares with an instance of the outer class class MyOuter { class MyInner { } } %javac MyOuter.java MyOuter.class MyOuter$MyInner.class Only way you can access the inner class is through a live instance of the outer class Within the Outer Class MyInner mi = new MyInner(); Outside the Outer Class Instance Code ++ MyOuter.MyInner inner = new MyOuter().new MyInner();

Inner Classes (2) : 

14 Inner Classes (2) Within the Inner Class The inner class use this. this  reference of inner class The outter class use NameOfOuterClass.this. MyOuter.this  reference of outer class Member Modifiers All the access keywords + strictfp, except static final / abstract / public / private / protected / default Static - static turns it into a static nested class not an inner class.

Method-Local Inner Classes : 

15 Method-Local Inner Classes Define: an inner class within a method Can access all the member of outer class But CANNOT use the local variable of the method (final local variable can be used) Member Modifiers CAN mark as abstract and final CANNOT mark as public, private, protected, static, transient Instance: Within the method but Below the inner class definition ++ Declared in a static method Can only access to static members of the enclosing class No access to instance variable

Example : 

16 Example class MyOuter { private String x = "Outer"; void doStuff() { String y = “method”; class MyInner { public void seeOuter() { System.out.println("Outer x is " + x); //can not use the y, which defined within method } // close inner class method } // close inner class definition MyInner mi = new MyInner();//only way to use it mi.seeOuter(); } }

Anonymous Inner Classes (1) : 

17 Anonymous Inner Classes (1) Inner classes declared without any class name at all 1. Create an anonymous subclass of the specified class type (subclass of Popcorn class ) 1. class Popcorn{… pop() …} 2. Class food { 3. Popcorn p = new Popcorn() { 4. public void pop() { 5. System.out.println("anonymous popcorn"); 6. } 7. ++ }; 8. } ++ Use a superclass(Popcorn) reference variable type to refer to a subclass object Only can overriding method of the superclass Even created new method, you can not use it (only has superclass reference)

Anonymous Inner Classes (2) : 

18 Anonymous Inner Classes (2) 2. Create an anonymous implementer of the specified interface type 1.interface Cookable { … cook() ...} …… 2. Cookable c = new Cookable() { 3. public void cook() { 4. System.out.println(""); 5. } 6. ++ }; ++ Same as normal class: implement all the abstract methods ++ Just one: Can extend exactly one class or implement exactly one interface Remember interface can not be instantiated, only create an anonymous implementer you can see: new xxxable() {};

Anonymous Inner Classes (3) : 

19 Anonymous Inner Classes (3) 3. Argument-Defined Anonymous Inner Classes make both an implementation class and an instance of that class in the method argument 1. class MyWonderfulClass { 2. void go() { 3. Bar b = new Bar(); 4. b.doStuff ( new Foo() { 5. public void foof() { 6. System.out.println("foofy"); 7. } // end foof method 8. } // end inner class def, ); // end b.doStuff 9. } // end go() 10. } // end class 12. interface Foo { void foof(); } 15. class Bar { void doStuff(Foo f) {} }

Static Nested Classes : 

20 Static Nested Classes a static member of the outer class Aren't inner classes at all, due to doesn’t have special relationship with outer class ++ CANNOT access instance variables and non-static member of outer class, be careful Define class BigOuter { static class Nested { } } Implement: Within outer class Nested x = new Nested(); Outside of the outer class ++ Outer.Nested() x = new Outer.Nested(); Different with inner class, be careful

Example : 

21 Example class BigOuter { static class Nest { void go() { System.out.println("hi"); } } } class Broom { static class B2 { void goB2() { System.out.println("hi 2"); } } public static void main(String[] args) { BigOuter.Nest n = new BigOuter.Nest(); // both class names //differ from inner class: new BigOuter().new Nest(); n.go(); B2 b2 = new B2(); // access the enclosed class b2.goB2(); } }

-- 9.1 --Defining, Instantiating, and Starting Threads : 

-- 9.1 --Defining, Instantiating, and Starting Threads 4.1 Write code to define, instantiate, and start new threads using both java.lang.Thread and java.lang. Runnable 4.4 Given a scenario, write code that makes appropriate use of wait, notify. or notifyAll.

Basic concepts : 

23 Basic concepts The behavior is not guaranteed single-threaded runtime environment: The next action can happen only when the previous one is finished thread means: An instance of class java.lang.Thread A thread of execution a thread of execution is an individual process that has its own call stack one call stack per thread main thread: main() method starts the whole ball rolling create a new thread a new stack materializes and methods called from that thread run in a separate call stack When it comes to threads, very little is guaranteed daemon threads JVM shut down, regardless of the state of any daemon threads.

Defining Thread : 

24 Defining Thread java.lang.Thread start() / yield() / sleep() / run() / join() Two way to define and instantiate a thread Extend the java.lang.Thread class. Implement the java.lang.Runnable interface. public void run(): job always starts from a run() Override run() method: it will executed in a separate call stack after the call start() ++ threadInstance.run() is legal, But won’t start at a new call stack, goes onto the current call stack

Instantiating a Thread : 

25 Instantiating a Thread Extended Thread class: Create thread: MyThread t = new MyThread( ) implement Runnable Implement Runnable: class MyRunnable implements Runnable {} Create Runnable: MyRunnable r = new MyRunnable(); Target Runnable: Thread t = new Thread(r); Can pass a single Runnable instance to multiple Thread objects means that several threads of execution will be running the very same job Thread class itself implements Runnable (no need) means that you could pass a Thread to another Thread's constructor Thread t = new Thread(new MyThread()); All the constructor: Thread(): no-arg constructor for extend thread class Thread(Runnable target): the constructor that takes a Runnable Thread(Runnable target, String name) Thread(String name)

Starting a Thread (1) : 

26 Starting a Thread (1) isAlive() / getstate() Alive: Once the start() method is called, the thread is considered to be alive/ runnable Dead: thread is considered dead (no longer alive) after the run() method completes start(): threadInstance.start(); A new thread of execution starts (with a new call stack). The thread moves from the new state to the runnable state. When the thread gets a chance to execute, its target run() method will run.

Starting a Thread (2) : 

27 Starting a Thread (2)

Multiple Threads : 

28 Multiple Threads Each thread will start, and each thread will run to completion. A thread is done being a thread when its target run() method completes. Once a thread has been started, it can never be started again Call second time will throw RuntimeException: IllegalThreadStateException getName() / setName() of Thread class to identify threads To help check the which thread executing that Runnable object Thread.currentThread() Current executing thread getld() return a positive, unique, long number will be the thread’s only ID for the thread’s entire lifespan.

Thread Scheduler : 

29 Thread Scheduler Cannot be controlled, often be native threads on the underlying OS The order in which runnable threads are chosen to run is not guaranteed Decides which thread should run at any given moment Thread in the runnable state can be chosen by the scheduler to be the one and only running thread Actions (if all thread priorities being equal ) Pick a thread to run, and run it there until it blocks or completes. OR Time slice the threads in the pool to give everyone an equal opportunity to run.

Controlling thread scheduling : 

30 Controlling thread scheduling java.lang.Thread class ++ public static void sleep(long millis) throws InterruptedException (must be try/catch) ++ public final void join() throws InterruptedException (must be try/catch) ++ public static void yield() public final void setPriority(int newPriority) static Thread.currentThread() java.lang.Object class ++ public final void wait() throws InterruptedException (must be try/catch) public final void notify() public final void notifyAll() java.lang.Runnable run()

-- 9.2 --Thread States and Transitions : 

-- 9.2 --Thread States and Transitions 4.2 Recognize the states in which a thread can exist, and identify ways in which a thread can transition from one state to another.

Thread States (1) : 

32 Thread States (1) New In after the Thread instance has been created, But the start() method has not been invoked on the thread. Not Alive. Runnable In when it's eligible to run, But the scheduler has not selected it to be the running thread. After invoked start(), thread first enters the runnable state OR return after either running or coming back from a blocked, waiting, or sleeping state. Alive Running in when the thread scheduler selects it (from the runnable pool) to be the currently executing process. Only one way to get to the running state: the scheduler chooses a thread from the runnable pool. alive

Thread States (2) : 

33 Thread States (2) Waiting/blocked/sleeping the thread is still alive, but is currently not eligible to run ++ Sleep(), yield() is static method, means only affect the current thread, not the instance calling them. Alive Dead when its run() method completes. It may still be a viable Thread object, but it is no longer a separate thread of execution. Once a thread is dead, it can never be brought back to life! ++ If you invoke start() on a dead Thread instance, you'll get a runtime exception (not compiler). IllegalThreadStateException Not Alive

public static void sleep(long millis) : 

34 public static void sleep(long millis) ++ static method, affect on current executing thread public static void sleep(long millis) throws InterruptedException static method of Thread class ++ Wrap calls to sleep() in a try/catch Guaranteed to cause the current thread to stop executing for at least the specified sleep duration Can not get a perfectly accurate timer Still lock the object

public static yield() : 

35 public static yield() ++ Static method, affect the current executing thread promote graceful turn-taking among equal-priority threads make the currently running thread head back to namable to allow other threads of the same priority to get their turn ++ Not guaranteed Never relay on thread priorities to do precise behavior If the priorities are equal, JVM is free to do give threads in the pool an equal opportunity to run.

public final void join() : 

36 public final void join() public final void join() throws InterruptedException non-static method ++ Wrap calls to join() in a try/catch Join the current running thread, and put the current running thread to the end Thread t = new Thread(); t.start(); t.join(); Guaranteed to cause the current thread to stop executing until the thread it joins with completes, Join(milisenconds)  the thread takes time longer than this parameter, the thread will stop waiting and back to runnable If the thread it's trying to join with is not alive, the current thread won't need to back out

Three ways to control thread : 

37 Three ways to control thread A call to sleep() , A call to yield() A call to join() Other reasons of state change Dead: run() method completes, A call to wait() on an object (not from thread) Thread can't acquire the lock on the object whose method code it's attempting to run The thread scheduler can decide to move the current thread from running to runnable in order to give another thread a chance to run.

Thread Priorities : 

38 Thread Priorities Threads always run with some priority, between 1 and 10 Thread.setPriority(1~10); static final variables Thread.MIN_PRIORITY  (1) Thread.NORM_PRIORITY  (5) Thread.MAX_PRIORITY  (10) Default priority is 5 Runnable thread with highest priority will be chosen to run Still cannot rely on thread priorities to guarantee behavior

-- 9.3 --Synchronizing Code : 

-- 9.3 --Synchronizing Code 4.3 Given a scenario, write code that makes appropriate use of object locking to protect static or instance variables from concurrent access problems.

Problem: Race condition : 

40 Problem: Race condition Race condition multiple threads can access the same resource AND can produce corrupted data if one thread "races in" too quickly before an operation has completed. To solve problem guarantee the related steps (atomic operation) won’t be aparted CANNOT guarantee that a single thread will stay running throughout the entire atomic operation CAN guarantee no other running thread will be able to act on the same object Mark the variables private. Synchronize the code that modifies the variables.

Synchronization : 

41 Synchronization Only methods or blocks can be synchronized, not variables or classes Method: private synchronized XXXX() {} Block: synchronized ( someObject ) { /* crucial code */ } ++ Block: synchronized(this) {} == Method: private synchronized XXXX() {} static methods can also be synchronized ++ Method is same == Block: synchronized(xxxClass.class) use class literal: the name of the class, and add .class at the end Each object has just one lock. A class can have both synchronized and non-synchronized methods Once a thread acquires the lock on an object, no other thread can enter any of the synchronized methods in that class A thread can acquire more than one lock

Locks : 

42 Locks Non-static synchronized method: invoked using the same instance block each other using two different instances  not interfere static synchronized methods: will always block each other  calling in the same class static synchronized method and a non-static synchronized method will not block each other ++ synchronized blocks have to look at exactly what object has been used for locking What's inside the parentheses after the word synchronized Be sure if the synchronized on which object, then the locked object can call wait(), notify()…

Methods & locks : 

43 Methods & locks Give Up Locks wait () (java.lang.Object ) Keep Locks notify() (java.lang.Object ) join() sleep() yield()

Thread-Safe : 

44 Thread-Safe Goal: avoid multiple thread change the protect data at the same time Don’t need to worry about local variable – each thread gets own copy Watch: Static and non-static field which contain changeable data. Avoid two methods accessing the same static field Access to static fields should be done from static synchronized methods. Access to non-static fields should be done from non-static synchronized methods Avoid to mix them Thread-Safe class "thread-safe" doesn't mean it is always thread-safe thread-safe" class has individual synchronized method, far from enough Better to do synchronize between different methods Thread Deadlock Deadlock occurs when two threads are blocked, with each waiting for the other's lock

Thread Interaction (1) : 

45 Thread Interaction (1) wait(), notify(), and notifyAll() must be called from within a synchronized context. A thread can’t invoke a wait() or notify() on a object unless it owns that object’s lock. Wait() means "add me to your waiting list." notify() is used to send a signal to only one thread that are waiting in that same object's waiting pool. notifyAll() sends the signal to all of the threads waiting on the object. An object can have many threads waiting on it, and using notify() will affect only one of them, not specify Object A : synchronized(anotherObject) { try { anotherObject.wait( ) ; // the thread releases the lock and waits // To continue, the thread needs the lock, } catch(InterruptedException e){} } Object B: anotherObject { synchronized(this) { notify(); } }

Thread Interaction (2) : 

46 Thread Interaction (2) A thread to call wait() or notify(), the thread has to be the owner of the lock for that object ++ if the thread calling wait() does not own the lock, it will throw an IllegalMonitorStateException (unchecked exception) Wait (long millis) define a maximum time to wait notify() is called doesn't mean the lock becomes available at that moment. notifyAll() the threads that are waiting on a particular object Deal the problems: the event waiting for has already happened Putting the wait() method in a while loop and re-checking the condition that represents what we were waiting for Always also have a while loop around the wait() that checks a condition and forces continued waiting until the condition is met Always need synchronization for threads almost always need to share some mutable data between threads at the same time

-- 10.1 --Using the javac and java Commands : 

-- 10.1 --Using the javac and java Commands 7.1 Given a code example and a scenario, write code that uses the appropriate access modifiers, package declarations, and import statements to interact with (through access or inheritance) the code in the example. 7.2 Given an example of a class and a command-line, determine the expected runtime behavior. 7.5 Given the fully-qualified name of a class that is deployed inside and/or outside a JAR file, construct the appropriate directory structure for that class. Given a code example and a classpath, determine whether the classpath will allow the code to compile successfully.

Compiling with javac : 

48 Compiling with javac javac command is used to invoke Java's compiler javac [options] [source files(xxx.java)] javac -help doesn't compile any files, but prints a summary of valid options Compiling with -d By default, the compiler puts a .class file in the same directory as the .java source file -d keep a .java files separated from .class files javac -d ../classes classes xxx/xxx/MyClass.java ++ if the destination directory you specify doesn't exist, you'll get a compiler error

Launching Applications with java : 

49 Launching Applications with java invoke the Java virtual machine java [options] class [args] Must specify exactly one class file to execute the java command assumes you're talking about a .class file Using System Properties java.util.Properties is used to access a system's persistent information: the current versions of the operating system, the Java compiler, and the Java virtual machine java -Dname=value pair must follow immediately, no spaces allowed. In class xxx: System.getProperty("aaa","bbb"); ++ Java –Daaa=bbb xxxx.class ++ Handling Command-Line Arguments Command-line arguments are always treated as Strings. Arguments on the command line directly follow the class name The first argument  args[0], the second argument  args[1]

Java and javac basic search algorithm : 

50 Java and javac basic search algorithm Both have the same list of places (directories) they search, to look for classes. Both search through this list of directories in the same order. As soon as they find the class they're looking for, they stop searching for that class. If their search lists contain two or more files with the same name, the first file found will be the file that is used. The first place they look is in the directories that contain the classes that come standard with J2SE. The second place they look is in the directories defined by classpaths Classpaths should be thought of as "class search paths." They are lists of directories in which classes might be found. Two places where classpaths can be declared: A classpath can be declared as an operating system environment variable. The classpath declared here is used by default, whenever java or javac are invoked. A classpath can be declared as a command-line option for either java or javac. Classpaths declared as command-line options override the classpath declared as an environment variable

Declaring and Using Classpaths : 

51 Declaring and Using Classpaths Classpaths consist of a variable number of directory locations, separated by delimiters -classpath /com/foo/acct:/com/foo (separator is the colon (:)) specify a subdirectory, NOT specifying the directories above it Most of the path-related questions on the exam will use Unix conventions. In Windows, directories will be declared using backslashes (\) and the separator character is a semicolon (;) Tell java or javac to search in the current directory is to add a dot (.) to the classpath classpaths are searched from left to right -cp == - classpath , but not always ++ Be careful, you need make sure you can get the file you are compiling/executing and the related files, all of them

Packages and Searching : 

52 Packages and Searching Once a class is in a package, the package part of its fully qualified name. A classpath is a collection of one or more paths. Each path is either an absolute path or a relative path Relative Paths: The path to the directory has to be correct relative to the current directory. A relative path is one that does NOT start with a slash Absolute Paths: from the root (the file system root, not the package root). An absolute path in Unix begins with a forward slash (/) (on Windows it would be something like c: \)

-- 10.2 --JAR Files : 

-- 10.2 --JAR Files 7.5 Given the fully-qualified name of a class that is deployed inside and/or outside a JAR file, construct the appropriate directory structure for that class. Given a code example and a classpath, determine whether the classpath will allow the code to compile successfully.

JAR Files : 

54 JAR Files JAR files are used to compress data (similar to ZIP files) and to archive data a single JAR file contains all of the class files in App, and also maintains App's directory structure Can be moved from place to place, and from machine to machine Create jar file: jar –cp MyJar.jar myApp ++ Check content: jar -tf MyJar.jar Create META-INF directory automatically Create MENIFEST.MF file automatically Search: similar to finding a package file ++ must include the name of the JAR file at the end of the path javac -classpath xxx/myApp.jar UseStuff.java ++ an import statement can import only a single package import java. util. * NOT getting the java.util.jar classes or java.util.regex packages

Using …/jre/lib/ext with JAR Files : 

55 Using …/jre/lib/ext with JAR Files jre/lib/ext If you put JAR files into the ext subdirectory, java and javac can find them, and use the class files they contain don't have to mention these subdirectories in a classpath statement Better use this feature only for your own internal testing and development, and not for software that you intend to distribute. JAVA_HOME or $JAVA_HOME means "That part of the absolute classpath up to the directories we're specifying explicitly." Can assume that the JAVA_HOME literal means this, and is pre-pended to the partial classpath you see.

-- 10.3 --Using Static Imports : 

-- 10.3 --Using Static Imports 7.1 Given a code example and a scenario, write code that uses the appropriate access modifiers, package declarations, and import statements to interact with (through access or inheritance) the code in the example.

Static Imports : 

57 Static Imports Static imports can be used when you want to use a class's static members import static java.lang.System.out; import static java.lang.Integer.*; public class TestStaticImport { public static void main(String[] args) { out.println(MAX_VALUE); out.println(toHexString(42)); } } import static followed by the fully qualified name of the static member you want to import, or a wildcard Watch out for ambiguously named static members. if you do a static import for both the Integer class and the Long class, referring to MAX_VALUE will cause a compiler error You can do a static import on static object references, constants and static methods.

Exam Watch : 

Exam Watch The tricks the examiner will use, Be careful

Code style : 

59 Code style exam creators are trying to jam as much code as they can into a small space Use chained methods StringBuilder.append(“xxx").reverse().insert(3, “xxx”); Directly output return: System.out.println(file.createNewFile());

Compile : 

60 Compile Be sure you know the difference between "compilation fails" "compiles without error“ "compiles without warnings" "compiles with warnings." In most questions on the exam, you care only about compiles vs. compilation fails—compiler warnings don't matter for most of the exam. But when you are using generics, and mixing both typed and untyped code, warnings matter.

Static : 

61 Static +++++ DON’T DON’T directly call non-static method in static method static methods and variables are invoked base on the reference type. static, it is not related to object, so you can use it directly static methods and member variables do not have this static and this never can go together static methods and member variables are not overridden, they are just hidden. static nested class - actually is a top level nested class, it can not use any variable from its enclosing class Only instance methods can be overriden, not for the static mehods. Static method cannot override as non-static method, vice versa Static method go with the reference, the non-static method go with the real object in heap

Access levels : 

62 Access levels Top level class only can use public or default private method -- let subclass free to do anything (because it is invisible) top level class must be public/default native only for method, volatile/transient all for variable Be careful with the protected, must be extends or within same package local variable only can use final

euqals() and hashCode() : 

63 euqals() and hashCode() Wrapper and String has own equals() and hashcode(), cannot be overrided StringBuffer/StringBuilder do not have equals(), so the equals() means == If do not override hashCode(), every entry get its own bucket, And the overridden equals() is no useful. equals() only take: primitive -- primitive, or object -- object Override equals() need make sure arg is Object and it is public boolean array can not be sorted Arrays.equals(a,b) compare the value, a.equals(b) only compare the object

collections (1) : 

64 collections (1) List can remove the object or the index. Map only remove key, Set only remove object All the sorted collection, For primitive, always be increasing order Real exam question: When the loop is iterating through the queue, can not poll() or offer() since it changes the contents of the data structure. non-generic compile will pass, but TreeSet can not compare different types, so throw ClassCastException. TreeSet/TreeMap must must override equals() and hashCode() for object entry binarySearch must use the same sort, don’t forget it.

collections (2) : 

65 collections (2) Collections do not work with primitive Set: the output ordering is not known since Set doesn't maintain ordering

generic : 

66 generic The "?" cannot be used along with the new operator. missing the () after < String >, real exam question can't add anything to a List reference that has a "?" ( unless it has a super keyword followed by a class name ) be carful with the return type CANNOT use instanceof for two classes which are not in inherit tree

Type / casting / boxing : 

67 Type / casting / boxing Reference type >= real object type method is chosen by JVM (not from reference) int[] and int... are same signatures. Boxing constructor only take corresponding type, new Byte(1) is wrong --> new Byte((byte)1) CANNOT do boxing then widening: short can not go Integer any int can fit into double-sized variable (double, float), no cast is needed be carful the primitive used + will always get a int, you need cast it to the require type the result of arithmetic operation will be int

Casting : 

68 Casting super reference  sub object Method Overridden method the real object Overloaded method  the reference + input type Static method  the reference Variable  the reference short cannot  Integer int cannot  Long +++++ Down casting won’t be compile error, it throws ClassCastException

Flow control : 

69 Flow control Enhanced for-loop: no possible to declare the loop variable outside no possible to find the index of the current pointer no possible to traverse backward Legal for-loop: Can declare variable outside switch case statement only can use: final int/ byte/ short/ char, can not be long, object such as Integer

scope : 

70 scope Scope can be a really trick method return variable must be initialized before return pass a object into method, only give a copy of reference to the method, so the related object can be change in the method, even keep the change out of the method. static import a package  produce compilation errors

Inner class : 

71 Inner class Nested class (static inner): can access the outer instance reference

Initial sequence : 

72 Initial sequence Static variable/ block, from top down  Initial variable  Initial block (even initial block is before the initial variable)  Constructor

import : 

73 import import java.io.*; import java.util.*; import java.text.*; import static …

(3) : 

74 (3) +++++ Polymorphism is only for method, so variable is still with reference +++++ Be careful with the class HAS-A objects, those objects also should consider to GC Becareful the static variable, it is not easy to be GC wait(), sleep(), join() all throw the checked exception: interruptedException ++ and - - have higher priority than / ++ Boolean: All Object converse to boolean always be true, except null; ++ the Boolean take the true, false by ignoring the case (doesn’t matter upcase or lowcase). +++++ Instanceof check the real object not the reference

(4) : 

75 (4) Error can be caught +++++ IO need import java.io.* even you only throw IOException antonymic inner class do not have a constructor method can be overridden, attributes cannot Coupling is not used to evaluate classes within the same inheritance tree if there is unreachable code, will be complie error. if the superclass only has the arg constructor, you must create a constructor to call the super(xxx); otherwise compile error %s automatically invokes the toString() method of the class and even if there isn’t one it should print object@1234 or something like that. null can not autobox to 0

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