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Four Stroke, Two StrokeDiesel, & Wankel Engine Theory and Operation : Four Stroke, Two StrokeDiesel, & Wankel Engine Theory and Operation Four Stroke, Two Stroke,Diesel, & Wankel TheoryPresentation Outline : Four Stroke, Two Stroke,Diesel, & Wankel TheoryPresentation Outline 1.0 Four Stroke Engine Theory Internal combustion principles Valve operation Four cycles Valve timing 2.0 Two Stroke Engine Theory Two cycle operation Lubrication Variations Advantages/ limitations more... Slide 4: 3.0 Diesel Engine Theory Operation Variations Advantages/limitations 4.0 Wankel Engine Theory Operation Variations Advantages/limitations 1.0 Four Stroke Engine Theory : 1.0 Four Stroke Engine Theory Intake Compression Power Exhaust Intake Stroke : Intake Stroke Compression Stroke : Compression Stroke Valves closed Power Stroke : Power Stroke Valves closed Exhaust StrokValve Timing Diagram : Exhaust StrokValve Timing Diagram 2.0 Two Stroke Engine Theory : 2.0 Two Stroke Engine Theory Up stroke Down stroke Slide 11: Reed Valve Transfer Port Carburetor 2 Stroke Up Stroke Compression occurs Crank Case Slide 12: Intake Power Exhaust Occurs Transfer Port Reed Valve 2 Stroke Down Stroke Carburetor + Fuel Mix : Fuel Mix Uses a premix of gas and oil Oil injectors used in some Normal mixes range from 16:1 to 50:1 Typical “hot” engines 16:1 Typical “cool engine” 50:1 CHECK OWNERS MANUAL !!! Advantage of Two Strokes : Advantage of Two Strokes Runs in any position More horsepower for size Fewer moving parts Lighter Limitations of Two Strokes : Limitations of Two Strokes Uses more fuel than four strokes Fuel and oil must be mixed Plugs foul easily Poor emissions 3.0 Diesel Engine Theory : 3.0 Diesel Engine Theory Introduction : Introduction Invented by Rudolf Diesel between 1892 and 1893 Internal Combustion Engine Reciprocating Engine Intermittent Combustion Engine Utilizes liquid fuel Compression Ignition vs. Spark Ignition Heavy Duty Applications Diesel Compression Ratio : Diesel Compression Ratio 20:1 up to 25:1 common Needed to ignite fuel No spark plugs Compression Ratios : Compression Ratios “Squeeze” on air/fuel mixture before combustion Efficiency increases with higher CR About 9:1 on gas autos 17:1 to 24:1 for diesel engines About 24:1 CR max: too high compression for starting limiting strength of materials power loss- leakage around valves Advantages of the Diesel Engine : Advantages of the Diesel Engine High reliability Low fuel cost High power / lb. of engine Low fuel consumption Low fire hazard High torque at low RPM Greater heat efficiency- 30% (25% gas) Longer service intervals Disadvantages of Diesel Power : Disadvantages of Diesel Power Expensive to repair Hard starting in cold weather Higher initial cost Gasoline and Diesel Engine Comparison : Gasoline and Diesel Engine Comparison Gasoline power stroke = 460 psi; Diesel = 1200psi Diesel heat efficiency about 5% higher than gasoline Induction System : Induction System Glow Plugs : Glow Plugs Resistance unit to heat cold engines Installed in cylinder head, sometimes in special pre-combustion chamber Some use intake heaters In addition, block heaters for cold weather Slide 25: Typical Diesel Engine 4.0 Wankel Engine Theory : 4.0 Wankel Engine Theory History of RCE(Rotary Combustion Engines) : History of RCE(Rotary Combustion Engines) 1924 - Wankel’s idea for RCE 1933 - patent was applied 1936 - patent received 1957 - engine runs Slide 28: One of Three Chambers Apex Seal Spark Plugs Rotor Intake Port Exhaust Port Epitrochoidal Bore Rotor and Apex Seals : Rotor and Apex Seals Sometimes called a “Rotary Piston” Receives power impulse from fuel air mixture Rotor has three faces Apex seals at tips-like rings Apex Seal Location Epitrochoidal BoreE-Bore : Epitrochoidal BoreE-Bore Same purpose as the cylinder walls of the piston engine Epitrochoid curve, generated by rolling a circle around another circle Basic shape of epitrochoid curve Slide 31: Rotors Eccentric Shaft E-Bore How a RCE Works : How a RCE Works Fuel air mix admitted into the peripheral housing through the intake port Ignition of the fuel air mix begins rotation of rotor through epitrochoid curve One face of rotor is compressing fuel air mix, another face is receiving mix How a RCE Works : How a RCE Works Otto cycle engine: Intake, compression, power, and exhaust happen in three chambers of epitrochoid curve Rotor and eccentric shaft continuously rotate in same singular motion Gases exhausted through exhaust port Two Types of RCE : Two Types of RCE KKM Kreiskolbenmotor or planetary rotation motor One statonary peripheral housing Rotor moves in orbit and propels eccentric shaft Most modern rotary engine Two Types of RCE : Two Types of RCE DKM Drehkolben Maschine First RCE Inner rotating housing and rotor moving around a fixed shaft Disassemble engine to change spark plugs Achieves speeds of 25,000 rpm Advantages and Limitations : Advantages and Limitations Fewer moving parts Single motion allows smoother running Compact engine, allows for more space Few manufacturers produce this engine any longer Summary : Summary Name the four cycles of a four stroke: Intake Compression Power Exhaust Summery (Cont) : Summery (Cont) What are the major differences in parts between a 2 stroke & 4 stroke? Ports vs. Valves Reed valve vs. Valves How is the fuel ignited in a deisel engine? Compression Summery (Cont) : Summery (Cont) The Rotory (Wankel) engine uses what type of bore? E- Bore What act like rings in a rotory engine? Apex seals Air can be __________, while water can not? Compressed Slide 41: The End You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.