Aids/Dr

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HIV/ AIDS/Drugs The 21st century pandemic :

HIV/ AIDS/Drugs The 21 st century pandemic AIDS/DRUGS S . Madan Kumar M.A., M. A., M.Phil., B.Ed., M.B.A.,

A Acquired :

A Acquired 2

A Acquired I Immuno :

A Acquired I Immuno 3

A Acquired I Immuno D Deficiency :

A Acquired I Immuno D Deficiency 4

A Acquired I Immuno D Deficiency S Syndrome :

A Acquired I Immuno D Deficiency S Syndrome 5

H Human :

H Human 6

H Human I Immunodeficiency :

H Human I Immunodeficiency 7

H Human I Immunodeficiency V Virus:

H Human I Immunodeficiency V Virus 8

HIV/AIDS refers to… :

HIV/AIDS refers to… “ A cquired I mmuno D eficiency S yndrome” (AIDS) or a set of symptoms and infections resulting from the damage to the human immune system caused by the H uman I mmunodeficiency V irus (HIV) . This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. 9

Basic Definitions And Meanings :

Basic Definitions And Meanings What is HIV ? HIV is “ Human Immunodeficiency Virus ”,it is the virus that cause AIDS. Human means that it affects only humans and lives only in humans. The virus does not live in toilets, mosquitoes, cups, spoons, on bed sheets or towels that people with HIV might have used. Immunodeficiency refers to lack(deficiency) or breakdown of immune system. The “immune system” is the body’s resistance or the body’s defense force for fighting off infections. 10

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The virus attacks and eventually overcomes the body’s immune system. The immune system is usually able to defend the body against infections. A virus is a germ. What is AIDS ? AIDS means “ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ” To acquire means to “get or develop over a period of time” The immune system breaks down gradually over time. 11

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It gets deficient or less and less efficient, under relentless attack by the multiplying number of virus in the body. Syndrome refers to the group or collection of signs and symptoms of indication of diseases in a person who has AIDS. HIV is the infectious stage of the condition, AIDS is the disease phase. 12

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HIV VIRUS 13

The Origin of AIDS and HIV:

The Origin of AIDS and HIV HIV came from a similar virus found in chimpanzees - SIV. HIV probably entered the United States around 1970.the first recognized case of AIDS was in the early 1980s. HIV is a lent virus (slow virus),which in turn is a part of a larger group of viruses known as retro virus 14

Epidemiology :

Epidemiology Males>females Occurs in all ages and ethnic groups All areas of the country are affected In some city inner areas, as many as 50% of males are HIV positive AIDS is now the second leading cause of death for all men aged 25-44 years (Unintended injuries is #1 and heart disease is #3 for this age group) 15

HIV Transmission:

HIV Transmission HIV enters the bloodstream through: Open Cuts Breaks in the skin Mucous membranes Direct injection 16

Routes of Transmission of HIV:

Routes of Transmission of HIV Sexual Contact: Male-to-male Male-to-female or vice versa Female-to-female Blood Exposure: Injecting drug use/needle sharing Occupational exposure Transfusion of blood products Perinatal: Transmission from mother to baby Breastfeeding 17

Routes of Transmission of HIV:

Routes of Transmission of HIV Occupational Transmission Health care worker/ hospital staff Laboratory workers Other routes Organ transplantation Artificial insemination Needle-prick 18

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HIV Transmission:

HIV Transmission Common body fluids that are means of transmission: Blood Semen Vaginal Secretions Breast Milk 20

HIV in Body Fluids:

HIV in Body Fluids Semen 11,000 Vaginal Fluid 7,000 Blood 18,000 Amniotic Fluid 4,000 Saliva 1 Average number of HIV particles in 1 ml of these body fluids 21

HIV-Infected T-Cell:

HIV-Infected T-Cell HIV Virus T-Cell HIV Infected T-Cell New HIV Virus 22

Ways through which HIV/AIDS is not contacted:

Ways through which HIV/AIDS is not contacted HIV cannot reproduce outside the human body. It is not spread by: Air or drinking water from the same pot with an infected person. Insects: including mosquitoes. Studies conducted by researchers have shown no evidence of HIV transmission from insects. Saliva, tears, or sweat.  There is no documented case of HIV being transmitted by spitting. Casual contact like shaking hands or sharing dishes. Closed-mouth or “social” kissing.

Window Period:

Window Period This is the period of time after becoming infected when an HIV test is negative. 90 percent of cases test positive within three months of exposure 10 percent of cases test positive within three to six months of exposure 24

Signs And Symptoms:

Signs And Symptoms The clinical consequence of HIV infection comprises of a spectrum ranging from an acute syndrome with primary infection to a prolonged asymptomatic stage to advanced disease. Incubation period: 2 to 10 yrs. 25

The Acute HIV Syndrome:

The Acute HIV Syndrome Follows 3-6 wks following primary infection 26

Signs And Symptoms:

Signs And Symptoms Second phase- Asymptomatic contact Initial HIV inf. or after illness of inf. No symptoms Last 2 to 10 yrs. 27

Signs And Symptoms:

Signs And Symptoms Third phase- PGL (Persistent Generalized Lymphadenopathy) Enlargement of lymph nodes. outside the inguinal area more than 2 areas more that 3 months 28

Signs And Symptoms:

Signs And Symptoms Fourth phage-Overt Manifestation of AIDS ARC(AIDS-related complex): fever, loss of weight, anorexia, diarrhea plus PGL Nervous system symptoms: headache, convulsion, paralysis, progressive dementia Rare opportunistic infection. Unusual malignant tumors. Pneumonia. 29

HIV Infection And Antibody Response :

HIV Infection And Antibody Response Infection Occurs AIDS Symptoms Initial Stage---------------- -------- Intermediate or Latent Stage- ------------- --- Illness Stage Flu-like Symptoms Or No Symptoms Symptom-free < ---- ---- 30

Common manifestation of AIDS :

Common manifestation of AIDS Lung infection: P. Carinii pneumonia Gastrointestinal infection: candidiasis of mouth or esophagus Skin infection: Kaposi’s sarcoma - red or violet macules or papules Central nervous System Infection: Toxoplasmosis Dementia Meningitis Primary CNS Lymphomas. Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy. 31

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Kaposis sarcoma:

Kaposis sarcoma Candidiasis Of Mouth 33

Swollen parts of the body :

Swollen parts of the body

Deterioration of the body tissues:

Deterioration of the body tissues

Extreme Wt loss:

Extreme Wt loss Lymphadenopathy 36

P. Carinii pneumonia:

P. Carinii pneumonia Primary CNS Lymphoma 37

Effects of HIV/AIDS:

Effects of HIV/AIDS

AIDS Worldwide:

AIDS Worldwide 39

AIDS In India :

AIDS In India 40

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS Risk factors Anyone of any age, race, sex or sexual orientation can be infected with HIV, but you're at greatest risk of HIV/AIDS if you: Have unprotected sex with multiple partners. Unprotected sex means having sex without using a new latex or polyurethane condom every time. Have unprotected sex with someone who is HIV-positive. Have another sexually transmitted disease, such as syphilis, herpes, Chlamydia, gonorrhea or bacterial vaginosis. Share needles during intravenous drug use. Received a blood transfusion or blood products before 1985. 41

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS Newborns or nursing infants whose mothers tested positive for HIV but did not receive treatment also are at high risk. Fastest growing method of HIV transmission: heterosexual contact. Heterosexual transmission is easier from men to women than from women to men Risk of acquiring for men is greater if contact occurs during menstruation Uncircumcised men are more likely to be seropositive and contract HIV during sex 42

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS If mother is HIV positive, 100% of children will test positive at birth Breast feeding increases transmission rate 43

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS There's no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. Prevention includes educating yourself about HIV and avoiding any behavior that allows HIV-infected fluids — blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk — into your body. HIV-negative Individual prevention: Educate yourself and others. Know the HIV status of any sexual partner. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. Consider male circumcision. Use a clean needle. Be cautious about blood products. Get regular screening tests. 44

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS HIV positive individual prevention: Follow safe-sex practices. Tell your sexual partners you have HIV. If your partner is pregnant, tell her you have HIV. Tell others who need to know. Don't share needles or syringes. Don't donate blood or organs. Don't share razor blades or toothbrushes. If you're pregnant, get medical care right away. 45

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“It is bad enough that people are dying of AIDS, but no one should die of ignorance.” 46

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS Traditionally, prevention is described as being at three levels: 47

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS Traditionally, prevention is described as being at three levels: 48

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS Traditionally, prevention is described as being at three levels: 49

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Two Approaches To Disease Prevention:

Two Approaches To Disease Prevention 51

Risk Avoidance & Risk Reduction :

Risk Avoidance & Risk Reduction Approaches Sex Injection Transfusion Pregnancy Risk Avoidance Abstinence, Mutual Monogamy Safe And Appropriate Use Of Injections Reducing Unnecessary Transfusions Routine HIV Antibody Screening Interventions Risk Reduction Condom STD Rx Sterile Syringes Quality Blood For Transfusions Short-course Monotherapy Zidovudine , Nevirapine To Mothers And Babies Elective Caesarean Delivery Breastmilk Replacement 52

What is the ABC Approach? :

What is the ABC Approach? A = Abstain B = Be faithful C = use Condoms 53

ABC Strategy:

ABC Strategy Avoid exposure   bstinence Mutual faithfulness Reduce exposure e faithful (Partner reduction) Block exposure effectively ondom use A B C A B C 54

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58 EVALUATION WHAT IS AIDS? WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HIV AND AIDS? STATE THREE MODE OF TRANSMISSION OF HIV. MENTION FIVE WAY THROUGH WHICH HIV/AIDS CAN NOT BE TRANSMITTED. OUTLINE THREE WAYS OF PREVENTING HIV/AIDS? WHY WE SHOULD AVOIDE DRUGS?

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THANK YOU have a healthy life 59

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