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FISCAL POLICY INTRODUCTION = It deals with budgeting the revenues and expenditure of the government =Fiscal economics is another name of Public finance =the function of the government were minimal in the early days. =Modern governments undertake a number of growth and development oriented projects and welfare activities for the well being of the people. =Modern state is a Welfare state


DEFINITION Public finance is concerned with the income and expenditure of public authorities and with the adjustment of the one with the other -Dalton


SUBJECT MATTER OF PUBLIC FINANCE Public expenditure Public Revenue Public Debt Financial administration Federal finance


TAX Dalton – A tax is a compulsory contribution imposed by the public authority ,irrespective of the exact amount of service rendered to the taxpayer, in return for which no specific and direct quid pro quo(absence of direct and proportional benefit to the taxpayer from the government) is rendered to the payer.


CANONS OF TAXATION Adam Smith laid down the following canons of taxation Canon of equity: this is also called the ability to pay principle of means that taxes should be imposed according to the capacity of the tax payer. Canon of certainty: Every tax payer should know the amount of tax to be paid, when to be paid , and where to be paid and also should be certain about the rate of tax to make investment decisions Canon of convenience: Tax payment should be convenient and less burdensome to the tax payer. e.g. income tax collected at source, sales tax collected at the time of sales and land tax collected after harvest.

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. Canon of economy This canon signifies that the cost of collecting the revenue should be kept at the minimum possible level. The tax laws and procedures should be made simple, so as to reduce the expenses in maintaining people’s income tax accounts. ie . administrative expenditure to be kept at a minimum.

Kinds of tax::

Kinds of tax: Taxes are of different types. They are: 1. Direct and Indirect taxes. 2. Proportional, progressive, Regressive and digressive taxes . 3. Specific and advalorem taxes. 4. Value-added tax (VAT) 5. Single and multiple taxes.

Direct and Indirect taxes:

Direct and Indirect taxes According to Dalton, “A direct tax is one which is really paid by a person on whom it is imposed whereas an indirect tax, though imposed on a person, is partly or wholly paid by another”. In the case of a direct tax, the tax payer who pays a direct tax is also the tax bearer. In the case of indirect taxes, the taxpayer and the tax bearer are different persons.


DISTINGUISH BETWEEN DIRECT TAX AND INDIRECT TAX Direct taxes Direct taxes are collected from the public directly. That it is to say , these taxes are imposed on and collected from the same person . One cannot evade paying the tax if it is imposed on him. Income tax, wealth tax, corporate tax, gift tax, estate duty , expenditure tax are good examples of direct taxes. Indirect taxes Taxes imposed on commodities and services are termed as indirect taxes . There is a chance for shifting the burden of indirect taxes. The incidence is upon the person who ultimately pays it. Examples of indirect taxes are excise duties, customs duties and sales taxes ( commodity taxes ). The classification of direct taxes and indirect taxes is based on the criterion of shifting of the incidence of tax. The burden of a direct tax is borne by the person on whom it is levied. For example, income tax is a direct tax. Its burden falls on the person who is liable to pay it to the Government . He cannot transfer the burden to some other person.

Taxes of the central government :

Taxes of the central government The main sources of tax and non-tax revenue of the central government are 1 . Taxes on income (other than on agricultural income), 2. Corporate tax , 3. Expenditure tax , 4. Taxes on properties ( Estate duties and Death duties ), 5. Gift tax, 6 . Wealth tax , 7. Taxation on capital gains , 8. Union excise duties, and 9.Customs duties ( Import and Export duties ).

The sources of non-tax revenue of the central government :

The sources of non-tax revenue of the central government Fiscal services, 2 . Receipts from interest on loans , 3. Dividend and profits , 4 . General and administrative services , 5 . Social and community services and 6 . Economic services.

Taxes of the State Governments:

Taxes of the State Governments Land revenue , Taxes on the sale and purchase of goods except newspaper , Taxes on agricultural income , Taxes on land and building , Succession and estate duties in respect of agricultural land, Excise duty on alcoholic liquors and narcotics, Taxes on the entry of goods into a local area, Taxes on mineral rights, Taxes on the consumption of electricity Taxes on vehicles, animals and boats,

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Taxes on goods and passengers carried by road and inland water ways, Stamp duties, court fees and registration, Entertainment tax, Taxes on advertisements other than those in newspaper, Taxes on trade, profession and employment, Income from irrigation and forests, Grants from the central government and Other incomes such as income from registration and share in the income-tax, excise and estate duties and debt services, loans and overdrafts.

On the basis of rate structure, taxes are classified as follows::

On the basis of rate structure, taxes are classified as follows: a ) Proportional tax In the case of a proportional tax, tax rate remains constant regardless of whether the tax base is large or small. It means uniform tax rate is imposed on the rich as well as the poor. The tax paid by the people is fixed in proportion to their income and wealth and other tax bases. b ) Progressive tax In the case a progressive tax, the tax rate increases as the tax base increases. With the increase in income, a taxpayer has to pay a higher tax. For example, in the case of income tax, exemption limit and tax slabs are characterised by the income tax structure formulated by the government of India. As each income slab increases, there is an increase in the rates of tax.

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c ) Regressive tax When the tax liability on income falls with the increase in the tax payer’s income, it is termed as a regressive tax. Here, the tax rate decreases as the tax base increases. Under this tax system, the poorer sections of the society are taxed at higher rates than the richer sections and hence this tax is not just or equitable. d ) Digressive tax Digressive tax is a blend of progressive tax and proportional tax. The rate of taxation increases upto a point. After that limit, a uniform rate is charged. Here the rate of tax does not increase in the same proportion as the increase in income. Under this tax system, the higher income groups make less sacrifice than the lower income groups.


Budget , ‘budget’ has been defined as the annual financial statement of the estimated receipts and proposed expenditure of the government in a financial year, usually April 1 to March 31 of the next year.The term budget is derived from the French word ‘ Bougette ’. It means ‘small bag’. As such, the Finance minister of a country carries a bag containing abstracts of budget papers while presenting the budget in the Parliament or a State Legislature.


Definition: Prof. Dimock says, “A budget is a balanced estimate of expenditures and receipts for a given period of time. In the hands of the administration , the budget is record of past performance, a method of current control and a projection of future plans” .

Kinds of Budget:

Kinds of Budget 1)Balanced Budget : A balanced budget is that, over a period of time , revenue does not fall short of expenditure. In other words government budget is said to be balanced when its tax revenue and expenditure are equal . 2) Unbalanced Budget (Surplus or deficit) : An unbalanced budget is that, over a period of time, revenue exceeds expenditure or expenditure exceeds revenue. When there is an excess of income over expenditure, it is called a surplus budget . On the other hand, when there is an excess of expenditure over income, it is a case of deficit budget.

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3)Revenue Budget and Capital Budget : Revenue Budget : Revenue budget consists of revenue receipts of the government (tax revenue and non-tax revenue) and the expenditure met from these revenues. Expenditures which do not result in creation of assets are called revenue expenditure. (e.g. current revenues and current expenditure for normal functioning of the Government departments , interest charges on debt incurred by Govt. and other nondevelopmental expenditure).

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Capital budget : Majority of the government expenditures form the capital expenditure. Capital budget consists of receipts and payments. Capital receipts are loans raised by government from the public which are called market loans, borrowings from the RBI, sale of treasury bills , loans received from foreign governments etc. Capital payments are expenditure on assets creation such as land, buildings, machinery , equipment investment loans to government companies and state governments and other developmental expenditures


PERFORMANCE BUDGET Under performance budgeting, various activities of the government are identified in the budget both in financial and physical terms. This is necessary to ascertain the relationship between input and output and to assess the performance in relation to cost. Performance budgeting is conceived as a system of presenting public expenditure in terms of distinguishable divisions such as government functions, programmes , activities and projects; such presentation would reflect the cost of running the government. Under this technique, funds are granted for carrying out specific amount of work identified under a particular division. A cost-benefit approach is employed which facilitates meaningful and purposeful allocation of funds.

Zero based budgeting:

Zero based budgeting In zero based budgeting, every year is considered as a new year thus providing a connecting link between the previous year and the current year. The past performance and programmes are not taken into account . The budget is viewed as entirely a fresh and whole fiscal initiative i.e . from zero bases.

Fiscal policy:

Fiscal policy Arthur Smithies points out, “Fiscal policy is a policy under which the government uses its expenditure and revenue programmes to produce desirable effects and avoid to undesirable effects on the national income, production and employment”.

The Importance of Fiscal Policy:

The Importance of Fiscal Policy To mobilize resources for financing the development programmes in the pubic sector To promote development in the private sector To bring about an optimum utilization of resources 4.To restrain inflationary pressures in the economy to ensure economic stability 5. To improve distribution of income and wealth in the community for lessening economic inequalities 6. To obtain full employment and economic growth 7. Fiscal policy and capital formation

Limitations to fiscal policy:

Limitations to fiscal policy 1) Size of fiscal measures The budget is not a mere statement of receipts and revenues of the government . It explains and shapes the economic structure of a country . When the budget forms a small part of the national income in developing economies , fiscal policy cannot have the desired impact on the economic development . Direct taxation at times become an instrument of limited applicability , as the vast majority of the people are not covered by it . Further , when the total tax revenue forms a smaller portion of the national income , fiscal measures will not step up the sagging economy requiring massive help.

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2. Fiscal policy as ineffective anti-cyclical measure Fiscal measures- both loosening fiscal policy and tightening fiscal policy- will not stimulate speedy economic growth of a country, when the different sectors of the economy are not closely integrated with one another . Action taken by the government may not always have the same effect on all the sectors. Thus we may have for instance the recession in some sectors followed by a rise in prices in other sectors. An increasing purchasing power through deficit financing, a policy advocated by J.M . Keynes in 1930s may not have the effect of reviving the recession hit economies , but merely result in a spiralling rise in prices.

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3. Administrative delay Fiscal measures may introduce delay, uncertainties and arbitrariness arising from administrative bottlenecks. As a result, fiscal policy fails to be a powerful and therefore a useful stabilization policy. Other Limitations Large scale underemployment, lack of coordination from the public , tax evasion, low tax base are the other limitations of fiscal policy.

Thank you :

Thank you Yours S.MADAN KUMAR . M.A.,M.A.,B. ed ., M.Phil.,M.B.A .,

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