Complex Sentences Power Point

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Complex Sentences in English: 

Complex Sentences in English Judy Macdonald St. Petersburg College Macdonald.judith@spcollege.edu Turn your speakers on to listen.

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences Before we talk about types of sentences i n English, you need to understand a few terms: What is a phrase ? What is a clause ? Independen t ? Dependent ? What is a sentence ?

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences What is a phrase ? A phrase is a group of words, but they are not complete thoughts. Phrases cannot stand alone because they are missing either a subject or a main verb . For example: the dog in the park walks to school

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences What is a clause ? A clause is a group of words with a subject and verb. Two types of clauses - independent and dependent . Independent clauses can stand alone as complete sentences. Ex. The dog is brown. Dependent clauses can not stand alone as complete sentences. Ex. Although the dog is brown

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences What is a sentence ? A sentence is a group of words with a subject and a verb that is a complete thought . It can stand alone, so it is also called an independent clause. For example: The dog is brown. She ate lunch in the park. The girl walks to school.

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences Review: Phrase - a group of words that are not complete thoughts and cannot stand alone. It is missing either a subject or verb. Clause - a group of words with a subject and verb. Clauses can be either independent or dependent . Sentence - a group of words with a subject and a verb that is a complete thought.

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences Independent Clauses An independent clause , or sentence, is a group of words with a subject and verb. It is a complete thought that CAN stand alone. For example: The dog is brown. She ate lunch in the park. The girl walks to school. Independent Clause = Sentence

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences Dependent Clauses A dependent clause is a group of words with a subject and verb. However, it is NOT a complete thought; therefore, it can NOT stand alone as a complete sentence. For example: Although the dog is brown As soon as she ate lunch in the park After the girl walks to school

Complex Sentences: 

Now that you understand what phrases , clauses (dependent & independent), and sentences are, we can talk about COMPLEX sentences. 3 T ypes of Sentences in English: Simple Sentences – The dog is brown . Compound Sentences – The dog is brown , but the cat is grey . Complex Sentences – Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful . Complex Sentences

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences A COMPLEX sentence has one independent clause and one dependent clause. For example: Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful . Before she ate lunch in the park , she bought a coffee . After the girl walks to school , she will start studying .

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences A dependent clause can NOT stand alone as a compete sentence, so it must be attached to an independent clause . Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful . Before she ate lunch in the park , she bought a coffee . After the girl walks to school , she will start studying . Dependent clause + Independent clause = COMPLEX sentence

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences What words make a clause DEPENDENT? Subordinating Conjunctions* Time: after, as soon as, before, since, until, when, whenever, while Reason/Condition : because, since, as, if, whether Place/Location : where, wherever, everywhere, anywhere Contrast : although, even though, though, whereas, while Similarities: just as, as *This is not a complete list.

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences A subordinating conjunction makes a clause DEPENDENT For example: INdependent : Maria studies English . DEpendent : After Maria studies English INdependent : I love to cook . DEpendent : Just as I love to cook INdependent : Omar is driving to work . DEpendent : While Omar is driving to work

Complex Sentence Patterns: 

Complex Sentence Patterns VERY IMPORTANT COMMA RULE: Pattern 1: DEPENDENT CLAUSE + COMMA + INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful . After the girl walks to school , she will start studying . Pattern 2: INDEPENDENT CLAUSE + DEPENDENT CLAUSE (No comma!!) The dog is beautiful although it is brown . The girl will start studying after she walks to school .

Complex Sentences: 

Complex Sentences Here are the same complex sentences using Pattern 2: Independent Clause + Dependent Clause ( no comma!) The dog is beautiful although it is brown . She bought a coffee before she ate lunch in the park . The girl will start studying after she walks to school .

Complex Sentences : 

Complex Sentences Examples of complex sentences: He goes to school after he finishes work . She felt better as soon as she took the medicine . Before you apply to college , you have to take an entrance exam . It has been a year since I left home . We can’t leave the room until everyone has finished the test . Whenever I don’t sleep well , I feel sick the next day . Jack excels at sports because he trains hard . I can never remember where I put my keys . Adapted from Introduction to Academic Writing , Third Edition, by Alice Oshima & Ann Hogue .

Complex Sentences : 

Review : Pattern 1: DEPENDENT CLAUSE + COMMA + INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Because he trains hard , Jack excels at sports. Pattern 2: INDEPENDENT CLAUSE + DEPENDENT CLAUSE (No comma!!) Jack excels at sports because he trains hard . Complex Sentences

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Let’s practice!  End of power point slide show.