BEAMS-SHEAR AND MOMENT 2014

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BEAMS:

1 BEAMS SHEAR AND MOMENT

Beam Shear:

2 Beam Shear Shear and Moment Diagrams Vertical shear: tendency for one part of a beam to move vertically with respect to an adjacent part

Beam Shear:

3 Beam Shear Magnitude (V) = sum of vertical forces on either side of the section can be determined at any section along the length of the beam Upward forces (reactions) = positive Downward forces (loads) = negative Vertical Shear = reactions – loads (to the left of the section)

Beam Shear:

4 Beam Shear Why? necessary to know the maximum value of the shear necessary to locate where the shear changes from positive to negative where the shear passes through zero Use of shear diagrams give a graphical representation of vertical shear throughout the length of a beam

Beam Shear –:

5 Beam Shear – Simple beam Span = 20 feet 2 concentrated loads Construct shear diagram

Beam Shear – Example 1:

6 Beam Shear – Example 1 Determine the reactions Solving equation (3): Solving equation (2): Figure 6.7a =>

Beam Shear – Example 1 (pg. 64):

7 Beam Shear – Example 1 (pg. 64) Determine the shear at various points along the beam

Beam Shear – Example 1:

8 Beam Shear – Example 1 Conclusions max. vertical shear = 5,840 lb. max. vertical shear occurs at greater reaction and equals the greater reaction (for simple spans) shear changes sign under 8,000 lb. load where max. bending occurs

Beam Shear – Example 2:

9 Beam Shear – Example 2 Simple beam Span = 20 feet 1 concentrated load 1 uniformly distr. load Construct shear diagram, designate maximum shear, locate where shear passes through zero

Beam Shear – Example 2:

10 Beam Shear – Example 2 Determine the reactions Solving equation (3): Solving equation (2):

Shear and Moment Diagrams:

11 Shear and Moment Diagrams

Beam Shear – Example 2:

12 Beam Shear – Example 2 Determine the shear at various points along the beam

Beam Shear – Example 2 :

13 Beam Shear – Example 2 Conclusions max. vertical shear = 11,000 lb. at left reaction shear passes through zero at some point between the left end and the end of the distributed load x = exact location from R 1 at this location, V = 0

Beam Shear – Example 3 :

14 Beam Shear – Example 3 Simple beam with overhanging ends Span = 32 feet 3 concentrated loads 1 uniformly distr. load acting over the entire beam Construct shear diagram, designate maximum shear, locate where shear passes through zero

Beam Shear – Example 3 :

15 Beam Shear – Example 3

Determine the reactions:

16 Determine the reactions Solving equation (3): Solving equation (4):

Beam Shear – Example 3 :

17 Beam Shear – Example 3 Determine the shear at various points along the beam

Beam Shear – Example 3:

18 Beam Shear – Example 3 Conclusions max. vertical shear = 12,800 lb. disregard +/- notations shear passes through zero at three points R 1 , R 2 , and under the 12,000lb. load

Bending Moment:

19 Bending Moment Bending moment: tendency of a beam to bend due to forces acting on it Magnitude (M) = sum of moments of forces on either side of the section can be determined at any section along the length of the beam Bending Moment = moments of reactions – moments of loads (to the left of the section)

Bending Moment:

20 Bending Moment

Bending Moment – Example 1 :

21 Bending Moment – Example 1 Simple beam span = 20 feet 2 concentrated loads shear diagram from earlier Construct moment diagram

Bending Moment – Example 1 :

22 Bending Moment – Example 1 Compute moments at critical locations under 8,000 lb. load & 1,200 lb. load

Bending Moment – Example 2:

23 Bending Moment – Example 2 Simple beam Span = 20 feet 1 concentrated load 1 uniformly distr. Load Shear diagram Construct moment diagram

Bending Moment – Example 2 :

24 Bending Moment – Example 2 Compute moments at critical locations When x = 11 ft. and under 6,000 lb. load

Negative Bending Moment:

25 Negative Bending Moment Previously, simple beams subjected to positive bending moments only moment diagrams on one side of the base line concave upward (compression on top) Overhanging ends create negative moments concave downward (compression on bottom)

Negative Bending Moment:

26 Negative Bending Moment deflected shape has inflection point bending moment = 0 See example

Negative Bending Moment - Example:

27 Negative Bending Moment - Example Simple beam with overhanging end on right side Span = 20’ Overhang = 6’ Uniformly distributed load acting over entire span Construct the shear and moment diagram Figure 6.12

Negative Bending Moment - Example:

28 Negative Bending Moment - Example Determine the reactions Solving equation (3): Solving equation (4):

Negative Bending Moment - Example:

29 Negative Bending Moment - Example 2) Determine the shear at various points along the beam and draw the shear diagram

Negative Bending Moment - Example:

30 Negative Bending Moment - Example 3) Determine where the shear is at a maximum and where it crosses zero max shear occurs at the right reaction = 6,540 lb.

Negative Bending Moment - Example:

31 Negative Bending Moment - Example 4) Determine the moments that the critical shear points found in step 3) and draw the moment diagram

Negative Bending Moment - Example:

32 Negative Bending Moment - Example 4) Find the location of the inflection point (zero moment) and max. bending moment since x cannot =0, then we use x=18.2’ Max. bending moment =24,843 lb.-ft.

Rules of Thumb/Review:

33 Rules of Thumb/Review shear is dependent on the loads and reactions when a reaction occurs; the shear “jumps” up by the amount of the reaction when a load occurs; the shear “jumps” down by the amount of the load point loads create straight lines on shear diagrams uniformly distributed loads create sloping lines of shear diagrams

Rules of Thumb/Review:

34 Rules of Thumb/Review moment is dependent upon the shear diagram the area under the shear diagram = change in the moment (i.e. A shear diagram = Δ M) straight lines on shear diagrams create sloping lines on moment diagrams sloping lines on shear diagrams create curves on moment diagrams positive shear = increasing slope negative shear = decreasing slope

Typical Loadings:

35 Typical Loadings In beam design, only need to know: reactions max. shear max. bending moment max. deflection

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