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The development was brought up by the oil companies rather than the food companies. definition : definition Single cell protein refers to the “source of mixed protein extracted from pure and mixed culture of algae, yeast, fungi and bacteria” The term was coined by carol L .wilson in 1966. The term is more appropriate as most of micro organism grow as single or filamentous individual. Slide 5: production The production of protein from hydrocarbons or waste of petroleum industry is the most recent microbial industry. However, single cell protein can be made from other waste material such as sewage effluent etc. The use of biomass produced in the fermentor would be an ideal supplement to conventional food supply. Single cell protein is of great nutritional value because of its high protein, vitamin and lipid content. Slide 6: PRODUCTION COST The production cost strongly influenced by the nature of raw starting material used. If starting material used is disposed of as a waste product , then the raw material cost is negative. however, if a useful material is used, then starting Material used will play a major role in the final cost of SCP. Price of SCP varies depending on how it is used, I e: SCP for human is about 10 times more expensive then SCP for animal feed because it is more highly refined. process : process Following basic steps are involved in SCP production process. PREPARATION of suitable medium with suitable carbon source. CULTIVATION of suitable strain of micro organism. PREVENTION of contaminations. SEPARATION of microbial biomass with or without product. SCP FROM WOOD : SCP FROM WOOD Natural sources and waste are the attractive sources for cellulose. Cellulose mixed with substances such as lignin, hemicellulose, starch, protein and salt. An enzymatic or chemical pretreatment must be given to breakdown the cellulose into fermentable form. After fermentation, the product made is directly used as animal feed. Micro organisms used are bacteria( Cellulomonas, and actinomycine) and fungi( trichoderma, pencillium, humicola etc.) SCP FROM CARBOHYDRATES : SCP FROM CARBOHYDRATES Molasses is used for the cultivation of yeast on large scale for the production of Backers yeast. A carbon source Glucose with mineral salt, biotin and ammonium ions are added at PH 6.0 From 1kg of glucose, 1kg of wet fungal mass is obtained with a protein content of 136gms. Micro organisms used are SCP FROM SEWAGE : SCP FROM SEWAGE Domestic sewage is not suitable for large scale SCP production. Industrial waste water from cellulose processing, coffee production, starch production and food processing have been used for SCP production. Micro organisms used are Candida utilis, C. tropicalis, Chaetomium cellulolyticum and paecilomyces varioti. SCP FROM NATURAL GAS : SCP FROM NATURAL GAS Methane is converted into protein by bacteria. Production of bioprotein takes place in fermenter in which Oxygen, Ammonium, minerals and water are added in addition to Natural Gas. After that, it is centrifuged, ultra filtrated, heat inactivated, and finally spray dried. Micro organism used are bacteria specially methanotrophic bacteria. Microorganisms Used : Microorganisms Used Various microorganisms used for the production of SCP are bacteria (Cellulomonas, Alcaligenes, etc), algae (Spirulina, Chlorella, etc), molds (Trichoderma, Fusarium, Rhizopus, etc) and yeast (Candida, Saccharomyces, etc), Spirulina maxima. all microorganisms cannot be used for making SCP. Slide 13: Average composition of the main groups of micro-organisms (% dry weight) Slide 14: Nutritional Value of SCP Slide 15: SCP can be used as food supplement to humans (Food Grade) or animals (Feed grade). in 1966. SCP contains high protein content (60 – 80% of dry cell weight), fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, Mycoprotein is a development of Ranks Hovis McDougall and is the only mycoprotein (except edible mushrooms) that has been cleared for human consumption. A fish feed by single cell protien is also in use. Uses of SCP SCP's Evaluation and Future Prospects : SCP's Evaluation and Future Prospects The efforts tried so far by adding dry SCP as a supplement to diets in order to solve the problems of the hungry in the Third World Countries. Every new food which appears in the market should have not only high nutritive quality, but also satisfactory organoleptic supplementary element. Today in most countries where market forces operate. SCP cannot compete with soya, alfalfa or fish meal. Mushroom production from lignocelluloses' seems to be one economical and promising use for SCP. For future success of SCP, first, food technology problems have to be solved in order to make it similar to familiar foods and second, the production should compare favourably with other protein sources. the idea that the single cell protein could help the less developed countries in future food shortages was gaining research interest among scientists in universities and industry, particularly in oil. The result was the development of SCP technology either for livestock or for human consumption Slide 17: the idea that the single cell protein could help the less developed countries in future food shortages was gaining research interest among scientists in universities and industry, particularly in oil. The result was the development of SCP technology either for livestock or for human consumption You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.