Section 11- Goal Setting Theory: Section 11- Goal Setting Theory Leaders are Readers: Leaders are Readers The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People Stephen R Covey (2004) “#2 Begin with the End in Mind” The HP Way, David Packard (2005) “We thought if we could get everyone to agree on what our objectives were and to understand what we were trying to so, then we could turn them loose and they would move in a common direction.“ This is Goal Setting Goal Setting:
Goal Setting Goal : What an individual is trying to accomplish through his or her behavior and actions. Goal Setting Theory : A theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of
and performance and why goals have these effects. Goal setting can operate to enhance both intrinsic motivation (in the absence of any extrinsic rewards) and extrinsic motivation (when workers are given extrinsic rewards for achieving their goals).
Solid Goal Characteristics : Solid Goal Characteristics S – Specific M – Measurable A – Achievable R – Result – based T – Time specific Goal Setting: (Continued) Goal Setting Major Dimensions of Goal Setting Research on the Impact of Goal Setting The Importance of Specific Goals The Importance of Difficult and Challenging Goals Goal Acceptance, Participation, and Commitment Self-Efficacy and Goals Objective and Timely Feedback Characteristics of Motivating Goals: Characteristics of Motivating Goals Specificity Often quantitative Difficulty Should be hard but not impossible for most workers to achieve Acceptability Especially important when managers set goals for subordinates Feedback So that workers know how well they are doing Specific, Difficult Goals Affect Motivation and Performance by:: Specific, Difficult Goals Affect Motivation and Performance by: Directing workers’ attention and action toward goal-relevant activities Causing workers to exert higher levels of effort Causing workers to develop action plans to achieve their goals Causing workers to persist in the face of obstacles or difficulties Limits to Goal Setting Theory: Limits to Goal Setting Theory There are two circumstances under which setting specific, difficult goals will not lead to high motivation and performance: When workers lack the skills and abilities needed to perform at a high level. (never forget: performance = ability * motivation * support) When workers are given complicated and difficult tasks that require all of their attention and require a considerable amount of learning. Goal Setting: Goal Setting (Continued) Management by Objectives (MBO): Management by Objectives (MBO) A goal-setting process in which a manager meets with his or her supervisor to set goals and evaluate the extent to which previously set goals have been achieved. Although less common, MBO can also be used as a motivational tool for nonmanagers. Necessary characteristics for MBO success: Set goals should contribute to organizational effectiveness. Goals should be specific and difficult. A certain amount of trust and rapport must exist between managers and their supervisors. Goal Setting: Goal Setting (Continued) Advice to Managers: Advice to Managers Be sure that a worker’s goals are specific and difficult, whether set by you, by the worker, or by both of you. Express confidence in your subordinates’ abilities to attain their goals, and give subordinates regular feedback on the extent of goal attainment. When workers are performing difficult and complex tasks that involve learning, do not set goals until the workers gain some mastery over the task. Personal Goal Framing and Development 15-20 Minutes: Personal Goal Framing and Development 15-20 Minutes James B. Avey PhD Develop Your Goal: Develop Your Goal Take a moment and think about something you want to accomplish in the next 6 months. Can be personal, work, school, whatever domain is salient. Make it YOUR goal, something that REALLY matters to you. Write it down “Frame” it in the following ways: Reasonably difficult- some chance of failure Approach vs. avoidance (something to do; not something to avoid) Clearly measurable Clearly noting what success looks like (specific, time bound) Develop Your Goal: Develop Your Goal List 3-5 milestones or “sub-goals” that you will need to accomplish along the way. Maybe draw it in a sequence if you wish. Take a moment and think about what will prevent you from accomplishing the goal. These are obstacles. Write down 3-5 of these obstacles. Write down what you will do to overcome the obstacles Write down who you can have hold you accountable and share this plan with them. Slide 17: ? Questions