pollution

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POLLUTION

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INTRODUCTION Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms . Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy , such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution . Major Forms Of Pollution 1.Air Pollution 3.Noise Pollution 2.Water Pollution 4.Soil Pollution

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AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals , particulate matter , or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment , into the atmosphere . The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth . Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems . Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report.

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WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes , rivers , oceans and groundwater ). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water ; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities .

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NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas , meaning seasickness. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems , including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise and rail noise . Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area. Indoor and outdoor noise pollution sources include car alarms , emergency service sirens , mechanical equipment, fireworks , compressed air horns , groundskeeping equipment, barking dogs, appliances, lighting hum, audio entertainment systems, electric megaphones , and loud people.

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SOIL POLLUTION Soil contamination ( soil pollution ) is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage tanks , application of pesticides , percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons , solvents , pesticides, lead and other heavy metals . This occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical usage.

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