Prehispanic Cultures

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Pre Hispanic cultures Daniela Contreras - A01421579 Sandra María Cossío Ibarra - A01321176 María Fernanda Cordero Del Valle - A01320816 Paola Cordero Del Valle - A01327590 Eduardo Collado - A00398242

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Aztec Culture Aztecs or mexicas were the native American people who dominated northern Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest led by Hernán Cortés. They originated from Aztlán “land of herons” Aztecs were a nomadic and nahuatl-speaking aggregation of tribal people. When Aztecs finally found refuge on small islands in Lake Texcoco where, in 1325, they founded the town of Tenochtitlán “place of the cactus fruit”. This culture became highly efficient in their ability to develop a system of canals to control the water levels and salinity of the lakes. By the beginning of the 16th century, the culture had become a formidable power.

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Aztec Gods Religion was extremely important in Aztec life. Centeotl: the corn god. Coatlicue: She of the serpent skirt. Ehecatl: the god of wind. Huehueteotl: the old, old deity. Huitzilopochtli: war/sun god. Mictlantecuhtli: god of dead. Ometecuhtli: created all life in the world. Quetzalcoatl: god of civilization. Tlaloc: rain deity. Tonatiuh: the sun. Xiuhtecuhtli: the fire god.

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Mixtec Culture In pre-Columbian times, the Mixtec were one of the major civilizations of Mesoamerica. Important ancient centres of the Mixtec include the ancient capital of Tilantongo. The Mixtec also made major constructions at the ancient city of Monte Alban. The work of Mixtec artisans who produced work in stone, wood, and metal were well regarded throughout ancient Mesoamerica. The mixtec, who are the third largest group of native mexican people. They call themselves the Nuu Savi, “people of the rain.” Their homeland is the Mixteca, a region which occupies the western half of the Mexican state of Oaxaca and small parts of Guerrero and Puebla, States on Oaxacas northern and western borders.

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Mayan culture (1000 A.C- 1521 D.C) The classic Mayan period: 250-950 B.C The Maya Empire centered in the tropical lowlands of what is now Guatemala. This culture covered the Yucatan Peninsula, Belize, and parts of Tabasco and Chiapas. This period was the height of the Maya civilization. The Maya excelled in agriculture, pottery, hieroglyph writing, calendar-making and mathematics. They were deeply religious and worshiped various gods related to nature including the gods of the sun, the moon, rain and corn. Mayans figured out the concept of zero. Theis astronomers tracked cycles of the sun moon and planets. They invented chocolate and herbal medicine. By 1000 A.D the mayans abandoned most of their cities, the reason of the decline of this civilization is unknown.

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OLMEC CULTURE Pre Classical edge; 1200 BCE to 400 BCE. Olmecs represent a mystery is a lot of information about them that is unknown. Antecesor of Mayas and Aztecs. Gulf of México-Veracruz, Tabasco. Olmec- “rubber people”.

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PRACTICES and characteristics Religion and Gods were represented by symbols. Religious practices: sacrifice, ball courts, cave rituals, pyramids, pilgrimages, offerings. Gods Represented the rain, the earth and the maize. Olmecs gave a high importance to animals of their environment. Agricultural surplus because of their location:corn and beans. They based their alimentation on corn, beans, plant food, sea food. Major urban centers: San Lorenzo, La Venta, Laguna de los Cerros, Tres Zapotes, Las Limas. Art: Colossal stone heads, Sculpture in ceramic and jade.

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TOLTEC CULTURE In Nahuatl the name means “master builders” The Toltec culture started in central Mexico (Tlaxcala, Hidalgo, Morelos, Mexico, Puebla) between the 10th and mid-12th centuries BCE. Tollán or Tula is the major place of the Toltecs (place of reeds). Palaces and awe-inspiring buildings made from gold, jade, turquoise, and quetzal feathers. To show their power, they made ceramics figures and these figures have been found in Mayapan and Matlazinca. Toltecs practiced humans sacrifices as a communication with their gods. They have a dual religion: Quetzalcoatl represents the good and Tezcatlipoca who represents the bad.

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Zapotec Culture Was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in southern Mesoamerica. Archaeological evidence shows their culture goes back at least 2500 years. The name Zapotec means "inhabitants of the place of sapote". They left archaeological evidence at the ancient city of Monte Alban in the form of buildings, ball courts, magnificent tombs and grave goods including finely worked gold jewelry. Zapotec religion was polytheistic. Two principal deities: Cocijo, the rain god and Coquihani, the god of light. Cocijo (Rain God)

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CULTURES OF OAXACA ZAPOTEC: Means "inhabitants of the place of sapote". In Monte Alban are a lot of evidences about them. MIXTEC: They call themselves the Nuu Savi, “people of the rain.” As Zapotecs , they also have evidence about their existence in Monte Alban and in Monte Negro.

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Cultures of oaxaca. This mask features a human face wearing a jaguar mask. It was delicately carved with 25 pieces of jade. It has a height of 27.5 cm, a width of 15 cm,10.9 cm depth and 9.3 cm thick. Military shield made of gold and turquoise where the arrows represent the courses of the universe. Gold and turquoise: Both materials interlace, in this relation gold represented the divinity of the sun and the war and the turquoise the sky and water so this shield alludes to fertility,death and rebirth Jade Mask of Monte Alban Proto Classic, Monte Alban II (100 a.C-200 a.C) Pectoral de Yanhuitlán, Pos Classic, Yanhuitlán, Oaxaca (800 - 1521 a.C)

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Lápida lunar (1200-1521 d.c) The pre hispanic mythology tells that the gods decided to throw a rabbit on the moon in order to not compete in brightness with the sun. This piece represents the similarly star. It has a height of 76cm and a width of 48cm. Vaso del Dios de la muerte The god of death and the underworld, called in Mixtec language "Yaa Dzandaya" realistically presented in this glass archaeologically recovered from the tomb of Zaachila. The deity shows fleshy hands and feet. In his left hand is carrying a knife that cut the life and in his right hand a cane bone.

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References Cartwirght,M. (2013), Totelc civilization, September 24 of 2015 from: http://www.ancient.eu/Toltec_Civilization/ Cartwirght,M. (2013). Olmec civilization. September 24 of 2015 from : http://www.ancient.eu/Olmec_Civilization/ Crystalinks. ((s/f)). Zapotec civilization. September 24 of 2015, from Crystalinks Sitio web: http://www.crystalinks.com/zapotec.html History. (s/f). Maya. September 24 of 2015, from History Sitio web: http://www.history.com/topics/maya# INAH.(s/f). Jade Mask of Monte Alban Proto Classic. September 24 of 2015 from: http://www.mna.inah.gob.mx/coleccion/pieza-339/ficha-basica.html INAH.(s/f). Pectoral de Yanhuitlán . September 24 of 2015 from : http://www.mna.inah.gob.mx/coleccion/pieza-315/ficha-basica.html INAH.(s/f). Lápida Lunar . September 24 of 2015 from: http://www.mna.inah.gob.mx/coleccion/pieza-300/ficha-basica.html INAH.(s/f).Vaso del Dios de la Muerte . September 24 of 2015 from: http://www.mna.inah.gob.mx/coleccion/pieza-298/ficha-basica.html Indians.org (s/f). The aztecs/mexicas. Indian.org. September 24 of 2015 from: http://www.indians.org/welker/aztec.htm Mixtec.org. (2012). Who are these people?. September 24 of 2015 , form Mixtec Sitio web: http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~mixtec/

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