Slide1: Forklift Operator Safety Session Objectives: Session Objectives You will be able to:
Understand how forklifts work
Operate a forklift safely and skillfully
Identify operating hazards
Apply general principles of safe operation
Properly inspect and maintain a forklift
Understand the hands-on portion of the training
Why Forklift Training Is Necessary: Why Forklift Training Is Necessary 100 fatalities each year
20,000 lost workday injuries annually
Hitting a pedestrian
Falling from raised forks
Falling from a ladder struck with a forklift
Training reduces injuries Powered Industrial Truck: Powered Industrial Truck Defined
Any mobile power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack or tier materials. Powered industrial trucks can be ridden or controlled by a walking operator.
Vehicles designed for earth moving or over the road haulage. Equipment that was designed to move earth but has been modified to accept forks are also not included. Vehicles Covered Include: Vehicles Covered Include High lift trucks
High lift platform trucks
Low lift trucks
Low lift platform trucks
Motorized hand trucks
Pallet trucks (electric)
Narrow aisle rider trucks
Reach rider trucks
Single side loader rider trucks
High lift order picker rider trucks
Motorized hand/rider trucks
Rough terrain trucks Forklift Fatalities : Forklift Fatalities What age group has the highest number of
18 – 24
25 – 34
35 – 44
45 – 54 Slide7: Fatalities by Age Group Regulatory Requirements: Regulatory Requirements According to 29 CFR 1910.178:
Operator must receive training before operating a forklift
Inspection and maintenance Forklift Basics: Forklift Basics www.Lni.wa.gov Image Credit: State of WA-WISHA Services Forklift Characteristics: Forklift Characteristics Different from driving a car
Rear of a forklift swings in opposite direction of the turn
Forklift impact against objects magnified
Driven backward as well as forward
One hand on controls
2 - 3 times the weight of a car Image Credit: State of WA-WISHA Services Nameplate: Nameplate OSHA requires a legible nameplate
It includes information about fork modifications and attachments
It lists the maximum load capacity
It describes the load center Image Credit: State of WA-WISHA Services Determine a Load’s Center of Gravity: Determine a Load’s Center of Gravity Center of gravity is the balance point
Load center is the point where the heaviest part of the load is located
Pick up loads at the shortest distance from the edge of the item to the item’s center of gravity and load center Image Credit: State of WA-WISHA Services Stability Triangle: Stability Triangle Stable forklift without a load
Stable forklift with maximum load
Unstable forklift with offset maximum load Combined Actions: Combined Actions Center of gravity (COG) side to side
Combination of two can cause tip-over Vertical Stability: Vertical Stability Attachments – Approved OSHA Safety Cage: Image Credit: State of WA-WISHA Services Attachments – Approved OSHA Safety Cage Change operating clearances
Change stability and load center Operating Hazards— Pedestrians: Operating Hazards— Pedestrians Forklift accidents involving pedestrians may be caused by:
Pedestrian unaware forklift is present
Carrying passengers and horseplay Operating Hazards— Environmental Conditions: Operating Hazards— Environmental Conditions Operating non-electric forklift in poorly ventilated area
Traveling on ramps
Crossing railroad tracks
Operating on dirt or gravel
Poor lighting Operating Hazards—Load Carrying: Operating Hazards—Load Carrying Load-carrying hazards include:
Working around loading docks
Loads that block the forward vision
Stacking and un-stacking on racks Leaving A Forklift Unattended: Leaving A Forklift Unattended Unattended means: the operator is more than 25 feet away or the forklift is out of view.
1. Lower the forks to the ground! 2. Set the controls to neutral. 3. Turn off the power. 4. Set the brakes.
If you dismount a forklift but stay nearby you must at least follow steps 1, 2 & 4. Forklift Characteristics and Hazards—Any Questions?: Forklift Characteristics and Hazards—Any Questions? Any questions about the characteristics or basic features of a forklift?
Any questions about the stability of forklifts?
Any questions about the hazards specific to our workplace? Conduct a Preoperational Inspection: Conduct a Preoperational Inspection Conduct a preoperational inspection
Follow the inspection checklist
Complete and sign the checklist Inspection Walk-around: Inspection Walk-around Check that the forklift is properly disengaged—forks down, key off, neutral gear, parking brake on
Check left and right side—tires, lug nuts, axle, overhead guard, and no debris behind the mast
Check front—forks, hoses, fork pins, backrest, mast, and chains
Check rear—counterbalance and radiator Inspection Walk-around (cont.): Inspection Walk-around (cont.) Propane/Gas/Diesel-powered forklift
Check all oil and fluid levels
Check fan belt, fan, and radiator
Check tank, hose attachments, and tank clamp
Check the battery condition While in the Operator Seat: While in the Operator Seat Make nonmoving checks—gauges, lights, horn, backup alarm, warning light, tilt and lift mechanism, and parking brake
Make moving checks—seat belt, running brakes, and steering
Look for oil or water leaks on the floor Operating a Forklift: Operating a Forklift Authorized operators only
Quickly report accidents
Always wear seat belts
No person under the forks
Operate controls only from driver’s seat
Never block exits or emergency equipment Tip-Over Safety Procedure: Tip-Over Safety Procedure Always wear your seat belt
Hold onto the steering wheel
Brace your feet
Lean away from the fall Image Credit: State of WA-WISHA Services Loading and Unloading: Loading and Unloading Never over-load the forklift
Check the weight of the load
Locate the load’s center of gravity
Inspect the load (stability)
Restack unstable loads
Tow from the rear towing pin www.lni.wa.gov/Safety Image Credit: State of WA-WISHA Services Picking up the Load: Picking up the Load Approach the load slowly and straight on
Ensure the forks are centered to evenly distribute the weight of the load
Make certain the load is balanced and secure
Drive forward until the forks are into the load all the way so the load is resting against the carriage
Raise the load high enough only to clear the traveling surface, then tilt the mast back
Check behind, to both sides and above prior to moving
Traveling: Traveling Look in the direction of travel
Keep body inside cage
Keep forks low when traveling
Sound the horn
Keep the load tilted back slightly
Image Credit: State of WA-WISHA Services Traveling (cont.): Traveling (cont.)
Avoid loose objects or holes
Keep the load tilted back slightly
Never carry passengers
Pedestrians always have the right-of-way
Keep a safe distance from the edge of ramps or docks
Never EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE!!!!
No horseplay Placing a Load: Placing a Load Inspect the area for load placement
Stop and slowly raise the load to desired height
Place the load squarely
Look and then back up slowly
Ramps and Railroads: Ramps and Railroads No turns on a ramp
Load facing upgrade
Never park on a dock ramp!!
Cross railroad tracks diagonally
Never park within 8 feet of the center of railroad tracks Docks: Docks Inspect the dock plate
Check the trailer floor condition
Make sure trailer wheels are chocked
Ensure that the nose of the trailer is supported by the tractor or a fixed jack Parking: Parking Don’t block exits or aisles
Lower the forks
Set gear to neutral
Set the parking brake
Turn off the key What’s Wrong Here?: What’s Wrong Here? Identify the hazards What’s Wrong Here?: What’s Wrong Here? What’s Wrong Here?: What’s Wrong Here? What’s Wrong Here?: What’s Wrong Here? What’s Wrong Here?: What’s Wrong Here? Propane Refueling: Propane Refueling Highly flammable gas—do not smoke
Report leaks immediately
Frost on fittings
Use gloves and safety glasses
Have fire extinguisher nearby Propane Refueling (Cont.): Propane Refueling (Cont.) Turn off the forklift.
Put on PPE
Close the valve.
Turn on the forklift – let the line bleed out.
Disconnect tank and replace with a full tank.
Make sure the valve connection is secure.
Open the valve.
**Always close the valve at the end of the day
Battery Charging: Battery Charging Charge batteries only in protected areas with ventilation
Inspect battery connectors for damage
Immediately clean up electrolyte spills
Battery electrolyte is highly corrosive—wear PPE
Have fire extinguisher nearby Gas & Diesel : Gas & Diesel Turn the engine "OFF" and apply the hand brake before refueling.
Clean up any spilled fuel before restarting the engine.
Make sure the gas cap is replaced before the unit is started.
Have fire extinguisher nearby
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Internal combustion engines produce carbon monoxide. This gas can rapidly build up in any indoor area. People can be overcome without even realizing they are being exposed. Confusion, headache, dizziness, fatigue, and weakness may set in too quickly for victims to save themselves. Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause permanent brain damage, including changes in personality and memory. Once inhaled, carbon monoxide decreases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen to the brain and other vital organs. Even low levels of carbon monoxide can set off chest pains and heart attacks in people with coronary artery disease. Inspection, Operation, and Maintenance—Questions?: Inspection, Operation, and Maintenance—Questions? Any questions about inspection procedures?
Any questions about operating procedures?
Any questions about vehicle maintenance? Manual Hydraulic Pallet Jacks: Manual Hydraulic Pallet Jacks Place the load evenly
Back down inclines and into closed spaces
Make sure the wheels and hydraulic handles are operating correctly. Add lubrication when necessary.
Check lift mechanism
Never ride on a pallet jack
Do not use forks as levers or as pry bars.
Do not use a narrow jack to move a wide load.
Do not use if:
wheels are out of alignment
the forks lift unevenly Key Points to Remember: Key Points to Remember Facility hazards include pedestrians, environmental conditions, and loading/unloading
Position loads close to the vertical backrest
Always conduct and document a preoperational inspection
Follow the safe operating rules of the road
Always refuel/recharge in ventilated areas and wear proper PPE References : References www.osha.gov