fundamentals of control

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Fundamentals of Control by Lucell Larawan

Planning Ahead — Chapter 17 Study Questions : 

Planning Ahead — Chapter 17 Study Questions Why and how do managers control? What are the steps in the control process? What are the common control tools and techniques? 2

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? : 

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? Controlling The process of measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results Has a positive and necessary role in the management process Ensures that the right things happen, in the right way, at the right time Organizational learning and after-action review 3

Figure 18.1 The role of controlling in the management process : 

Figure 18.1 The role of controlling in the management process 4

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? : 

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? Feedforward controls Employed before a work activity begins Ensures that: Objectives are clear Proper directions are established Right resources are available Focuses on quality of resources 5

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? : 

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? Concurrent controls Focus on what happens during work process Monitor ongoing operations to make sure they are being done according to plan Can reduce waste in unacceptable finished products or services 6

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? : 

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? Feedback controls Take place after work is completed Focus on quality of end results Provide useful information for improving future operations 7

Figure 18.2 Feedforward, concurrent, and feedback controls. : 

Figure 18.2 Feedforward, concurrent, and feedback controls. 8

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? : 

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? Internal and external control Internal control Allows motivated individuals and groups to exercise self-discipline in fulfilling job expectations External control Occurs through personal supervision and the use of formal administrative systems 9

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? : 

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? Self-control Internal control that occurs through self-discipline in fulfilling work and personal goals and responsibilities 10

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? : 

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? Bureaucratic control influences behavior through authority, policies, procedures, job descriptions, budgets, and day-to-day supervision Clan control influences behavior through norms and expectations set by the organizational culture 11

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? : 

Study Question 1: Why and how do managers control? Market Control Influence of market competition on the behavior of organizations and their members 12

Study Question 2: What are the steps in the control process? : 

Study Question 2: What are the steps in the control process? Steps in the control process: Step 1 — establish objectives and standards Step 2 — measure actual performance Step 3 — compare results with objectives and standards Step 4 — take corrective action as needed 13

Figure 18.3 Four steps in the control process : 

Figure 18.3 Four steps in the control process 14

Study Question 2: What are the steps in the control process? : 

Study Question 2: What are the steps in the control process? Step 1 — establishing objectives and standards Output standards Measure performance results in terms of quantity, quality, cost, or time Input standards Measure effort in terms of amount of work expended in task performance 15

Study Question 2: What are the steps in the control process? : 

Study Question 2: What are the steps in the control process? Step 2 — measuring actual performance Goal is accurate measurement of actual performance results and/or performance efforts Must identify significant differences between actual results and original plan Effective control requires measurement 16

Study Question 2: What are the steps in the control process? : 

Study Question 2: What are the steps in the control process? Step 3 — comparing results with objectives and standards Need for action reflects the difference between desired performance and actual performance Comparison methods: Historical comparison Relative comparison Engineering comparison 17

Study Question 2: What are the steps in the control process? : 

Study Question 2: What are the steps in the control process? Step 4 — taking corrective action Taking action when a discrepancy exists between desired and actual performance Management by exception Giving attention to situations showing the greatest need for action Types of exceptions Problem situation Opportunity situation 18

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? : 

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? Employee discipline systems Discipline is the act of influencing behavior through reprimand Discipline that is applied fairly, consistently, and systematically provides useful control 19

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? : 

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? Employee discipline systems Progressive discipline ties reprimands to the severity and frequency of the employee’s infractions Progressive discipline seeks to achieve compliance with the least extreme reprimand possible 20

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? : 

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? To be effective, reprimands should Be immediate Be directed toward actions, not personality Be consistently applied Be informative Occur in a supportive setting Support realistic rules 21

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? : 

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? Project Management Overall planning, supervision, and control of projects Projects – unique one-time events that occur within a defined time period Gantt chart – graphic display of scheduled tasks required to complete a project CPM/PERT – combination of the critical path method and program evaluation and review technique 22

Figure 18.4 Gantt chart : 

Figure 18.4 Gantt chart 23

Figure 18.5 CPM/PERT : 

Figure 18.5 CPM/PERT 24

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? : 

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? Economic Value Added a performance measure of economic value created in respect to profits being higher than the cost of capital Market Value Added a performance measure of stock market value relative to the cost of capital 25

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? : 

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? Basic Financial Ratios Liquidity The ability to generate cash to pay bills Leverage The ability to earn more in returns than the cost of debt Asset management The ability to use resources efficiently and operate at minimum cost Profitability The ability to earn revenues greater than costs 26

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? : 

Study Question 3: What are the common control systems and techniques? Balanced Scorecard Factors used to develop scorecard goals and measures: Financial performance Customer Satisfaction Internal process improvement Innovation and learning 27

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