english project on British sports

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Many of the world famous sports appeared in Britain, including cricket, soccer, lawn tennis. golf and rugby . Sports play an important part in the British people`s life and they are a popular leisure activity.

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Football Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world. Millions of people regularly go to football stadiums to follow their favourite teams,while billions more watch the game on television or on the internet. A very large number of people also play football at an amateur level. According to a survey conducted by FIFA published in 2001, over 240 million people from more than 200 countries regularly play football.Football has the highest global television audience in sport .

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As you all know Association football, commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. At the turn of the 21st century the game was played by over 250 million players in over 200 countries making it the world’s most popular sport. The Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by the Football Association in 1863, and have changed significantly since that time. Association football is governed internationally by FIFA, which organises the FIFA World Cup every four years .

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Games revolving around the kicking of a ball have been played in many countries throughout history. According to FIFA, "The very earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise from a military manual dating back to the second and third centuries BC in China. The modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played at the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to the eighth century. The Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were particularly influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury schools. They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football. Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club.

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These ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association (The FA) in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemason‘ a Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse.The Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which eventually produced the first comprehensive set of rules. The laws of the game are currently determined by the International Football Association Board (IFAB).] The Board was formed in 1886 after a meeting in Manchester of The Football Association, the Scottish Football Association, the Football Association of Wales, and the Irish Football Association.

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The world's oldest football competition is the FA Cup, which was founded by C. W. Alcock and has been contested by English teams since 1872. The first official international football match took place in 1872 between Scotland and England in Glasgow, again at the instigation of C. W. Alcock. England is home to the world's first football league, which was founded in Birmingham in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor. The original format contained 12 clubs from the Midlands and the North of England The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to the International Football Association Board in 1913. The board currently consists of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from each of the four British associations.

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David Beckham

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David Robert Joseph Beckham (born 2 May 1975) is an English footballer who plays midfield for Los Angeles Galaxy in Major League Soccer,having previously played for Manchester United, Preston North End, Real Madrid, and A.C. Milan, as well as the England national team, for whom he holds the all-time appearance record for an outfield player. Beckham's career began when he signed a professional contract with Manchester United, making his first-team debut in 1992 aged 17.During his time there, United won the Premier League title six times, the FA Cup twice, and the UEFA Champions League in 1999.[He left Manchester United to sign for Real Madrid in 2003, where he remained for four seasons.In January 2007, it was announced that Beckham would leave Real Madrid for the Major League Soccer club Los Angeles Galaxy,signing a five-year contract with them on 1 July 2007.

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Beckham is married to former Spice Girl Victoria Beckham.The couple have three sons, are expecting a daughter, and currently reside in Beverly Hills, California. In international football, Beckham made his England debut on 1 September 1996, at the age of 21. He was made captain from 15 November 2000 until the 2006 FIFA World Cup finals,during which he played 58 times. He earned a much-publicised hundredth cap against France on 26 March 2008,and became the all-time outfield player appearance record holder on 28 March 2009 when he surpassed Bobby Moore's total of 108 caps.With 115 career appearances to date he has stated that does not intend to retire from international football, having missed the 2010 World Cup through injury. Beckham has twice been runner-up for FIFA World Player of the Year and in 2004 was the world's highest-paid footballer when taking into account salary and advertising deals.Beckham was the first British footballer to play 100 Champions League matches.He was Google's most searched of all sports topics in both 2003 and 2004. With such global recognition he has become an elite advertising brand and a top fashion icon.When joining the MLS in 2007 he was given the highest player salary in the league's history, with his playing contract with the Galaxy over the next three years being worth $6.5 million per year.

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The oldest football club in the world Sheffield FC. They play in Northern Premier League Division One South. They are the eight division in England: Sheffield FC. The oldest football club in the world was founded in South Yorkshire in 1857. Sheffield Fc was not only founded in 1857 but its leaders also created the code that is at the basis of the actual football which is called Sheffield Rules. Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest are the football club’s parents , both former cricket players. The first official meeting of the founders took place on 24th October 1857 in a building in East Bank Road rented by Thomas Asline Ward , the father of the first president of the club, Frederick Ward. In 1860 Sheffield FC and Hallam FC ( a club founded that year) , played the first football match according to the rules conceived by the two founders from Sheffield , game recognised as the first in the history of football. In 1863 the leaders of the Sheffield club were among the founders of the English Football Association. In 1872 the first international match takes place between two countries, England – Scotland. In the first English 11 , Sir Charles Clegg was a notable member, match after match at Sheffield FC. In 1904 Sheffield FC won the English cup at amateur level. In 1957 the club celebrated their hundredth anniversary at Cutlers Hall, in the presence of the Duke of Edinburgh. Sheffied FC preferred to keep football at amateur level , as the courtesy rules of the moment required. They initially refused to take part in competitions in which proffessional football players participated and they asked for the foundation of a competition for amateurs (FA Amators Cup ), competition that Sheffield FC won in 1904). Now Sheffield FC plays in the eight league in England.

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Manchester United Football Club is an English professional football club, based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, that plays in the Premier League. Founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, the club changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to Old Trafford in 1910. In 1968 Manchester United was the first English football club to win the European Cup . The current manager, Sir Alex Ferguson, is the most successful manager in English football history, having won 26 major honours since he took over in November 1986. Manchester United is the most successful club in the history of English football, having won a record 19 league titles, a record 11 FA Cups and four League Cups. The club has also won three European Cups and is the only English club to have been world champions, in 1999 and 2008. Manchester United is one of the wealthiest and most widely supported football teams in the world.The club is said to be worth £1.13 billion, making it the most valuable football club in the world. After being floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1991, the club was purchased by Malcolm Glazer in May 2005 in a deal valuing the club at almost £800 million.

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Chelsea Chelsea Football Club is an English football club based in West London. Founded in 1905, they play in the Premier League and have spent most of their history in the top tier of English football. Chelsea have been English champions four times, FA Cup winners six times and League Cup winners four times. They have also been successful in Europe, winning the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup twice. The club had their first major success in 1955, when they won the league championship. Chelsea won several cup competitions during the 1960s and 1970s, but after that did not win another major title until 1997. The past decade has been the most successful period in Chelsea’s history, capped by winning Premier League titles in 2005, 2006 and 2010, the latter as part of their first league and FA Cup "Double". Despite their name, the club are not based in Chelsea, but in neighbouring Fulham. The club's home is the 41,841 capacity Stamford Bridge football stadium in Fulham,where they have played since their establishment. Since 2003 they have been owned by Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich .

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THE GAME Cricket was invented in the vast fields of England, supposedly by shepherds who herded their flock. Later on this game was shown benevolence by aristocrats, and now has the stature of being England's national game. After a century now, cricket stands in the international arena, with a place of its own. Cricket involves two teams with 11 players on each side. The captain who wins the toss decides whether his team bats or bowls first. If they bat first , their aim is to score a lot of runs and make sure the other team does not reach that score.

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Cricket is played in many formats , but the most popular are TEST CRICKET and ONE DAY cricket. In TEST cricket the game goes on for 5 days, with each team batting twice - if time permits. ONE DAY is the most popular format, with each team getting 300 balls to score runs. And the other team tries to outscore them within the same number of balls . FORMATS OF THE GAME

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Horseracing, the sport of Kings is a very popular sport with meetings being held every day throughout the year. The Derby originated here, as did The Grand National which is the hardest horse race in the world. Horse racing and greyhound racing are popular spectator sports. People can place bets on the races at legal off-track betting shops. Some of the best-known horse races are held at Ascot, Newmarket, Goodwood and Epsom. Ascot, a small town in the south of England, becomes the centre of horse-racing world for one week in June. It's called Royal Ascot because the Queen always goes to Ascot. She has a lot of racehorses and likes to watch racing.

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Tennis Tennis is a sport usually played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a racket to strike a ball over a net into the opponent's court. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society at all ages. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including people in wheelchairs. Most historians believe that tennis originated in England in the 12th century, but the ball was then struck with the palm of the hand. It was not until the 16th century that rackets came into use, and the game began to be called "tennis." It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, which historians now refer to as real tennis. The modern game of tennis originated in the United Kingdom in the late 19th century as "lawn tennis" which has close connections to various field/lawn games as well as to the ancient game of real tennis .

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The game of darts has been around for centuries. Some historians attribute the birth of darts to English soldiers in Medieval times. The soldiers would shorten their arrows from time to time and throw these shortened arrows at the bottom of a wine barrel or a wide tree. It was essentially a drinking game in those days and it remains a popular "pub" game to this day. Dartboards can also be found in many homes as well. Modern darts have a thin base, a steel pointed tip, and some sort of plastic or similar substance which serve as fins. Many taverns and pubs host dart tournaments and dart leagues on a regular basis. Darts

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The dartboard itself is made of 20 segments, numbered 1 through 20, with a bullseye in the middle of the board. Each number also contains two small rectangular scoring sections on each segment. The smallest of the segments, closest to the bullseye, scores triple points and the other rectangular segment scores double points. For example, if a player tosses an 8 but it lands in the small segment closest to the bullseye, the triple score would bring the total to 24. The dartboard should be set up so that the bullseye is centered at 5 feet, 8 inches (1.72 meters) off the floor. Players toss darts at the board from a tape mark just shy of 8 feet (2.43 meters) away. In a game of darts, each player will toss 3 darts at the board and then the following player will throw three darts. After each player has his or her turn, the darts will be removed for the next round of play. As a general rule, a dart must stick to the board for at least five seconds. If the dart falls off the board prior to that time, the player receives no points for that dart.

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Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks. It is most commonly known simply as "hockey;" however, the name field hockey is used in countries in which the word hockey is generally reserved for another form of hockey, such as ice hockey or street hockey. The modern game grew from English public schools in the early 19th century. The first club was in 1849 at Blackheath in south-east London, but the modern rules grew out of a version played by Middlesex cricket clubs for winter sport. Teddington Hockey Club formed the modern game by introducing the striking circle and changing the ball to a sphere from a rubber cube. The Hockey Association was founded in 1886. The first international took place in 1895 (Ireland 3, Wales 0) and the International Rules Board was founded in 1900. Hockey was played at the Summer Olympics in 1908 and 1920. It was dropped in 1924, leading to the foundation of the Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon (FIH) as an international governing body by seven continental European nations, and hockey was reinstated in 1928. Field Hockey

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Netball is a particularly fast and highly skilled sport. It was created by an American basketball coach attempting to improve the skills of Basketball. He worked at Luton Teachers College in England where he introduced the sport to many of the graduating teachers. These teachers gained positions in schools all over England bringing this new and exciting game with them. Some of these teachers travelled the world teaching Netball in other countries. Netball is now played predominantly by women in 25 countries throughout the world, particularly in Australia, New Zeeland and the UK. Netball

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So how do you play Netball?

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There are seven players on each team and the aim of the game is to get the ball in the opposing goal hoop as many times as possible throughout a 60 minute match. The netball court is approximately the size of a tennis court. The court is split by two lines that divide the court into thirds. At both ends of the court there is a shooting semicircle and a ten ft goal post with no back board. Each team member has a specific position that is restricted to an area on the court. These restricted areas have an attacking and defending player in them, each from an opposing team. Some of the main rules are : · Once the player has caught the ball only two steps may be taken · A player can only hold the ball for three seconds. · A defending player must be three feet away from an attacking player with the ball. · Only two positions on the court can shoot · Shots can only be taken from within the semicircle .

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Table tennis, better known as Ping-Pong, is the second most played sport in the world, beat only by soccer. Table tennis came from England toward the end of the 1800's, where it was enjoyed as a social sport. At that time it was called gossima, and flim-flam, but the name that stuck was ping-pong because of the noise the ball made as it bounced on the table. In the 1920's the game was revived in Europe as table tennis and The International Table Tennis Association (ITTF) was formed in 1926. Japanese and Chinese dominated the sport through the 50s, 60's and 70's, and table tennis became an Olympic event in 1988. Table tennis is a form of tennis played on a special table rather than on a tennis court. Table tennis rackets resemble paddles, and the table tennis ball which is about the size of a golf ball, is smooth, hollow, extremely light, and bounces easily on the hard table top. Table tennis

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HOW DO WE PLAY? • Each of the two courts is divided yet again by a white center line running perpendicular to the net, or parallel with the sides. This creates 2 half-courts on each side, used when playing doubles, or 2 to a team . •To begin a game the server drops the ball to the table allowing it to bounce, then strikes the ball so that it first hits in his court before passing over the net to strike the opponent's court. The ball must not swipe any part of the net on a serve or the serve is invalid. •To return the serve, the receiver strikes the ball so that it passes over or around the net to land on the opposite side of the table. It may swipe the net as long as it passes over. •When the ball is in play it is referred to as a rally. Points are scored when the server fails to make good on a serve, or when the receiver misses a good serve or is unable to return it successfully. •The first person or team to rack up 11 points wins, unless the score becomes tied at 10 points each. In this case the first to reach a 2-point lead wins. A match consists of winning the best of any odd number of games.

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Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles), who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court that is divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their racquet so that it passes over the net and lands in their opponents' half of the court. Each side may only strike the shuttlecock once before it passes over the net. A rally ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor. Badminton is also played outdoors as a casual recreational activity, often as a garden or beach game.. At high levels of play, the sport demands excellent fitness: players require agility, strength, speed and precision. It is also a technical sport, requiring good motor coordination and the development of sophisticated racquet movements. Badminton

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The beginnings of Badminton can be traced to mid-18th century British India, where it was created by British military officers stationed there.Early photographs show Englishmen adding a net to the traditional English game of battledore and shuttlecock. Being particularly popular in the British garrison town Poona (now Pune), the game also came to be known as Poona.Initially, balls of wool referred as ball badminton were preferred by the upper classes in windy or wet conditions, but ultimately the shuttlecock stuck. This game was taken by retired officers back to England where it developed and rules were set out.

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Until 1887, the sport was played in England under the rules that prevailed in British India. The Bath Badminton Club standardized the rules and made the game applicable to English ideas. The basic regulations were drawn up in 1887. In 1893, the Badminton Association of England published the first set of rules according to these regulations, similar to today's rules, and officially launched badminton in a house called "Dunbar" at Portsmouth, England in September that year.They also started the All England Open Badminton Championships, the first badminton competition in the world, in 1899. The new sport was definitively launched in 1873 at the Badminton House, Gloucestershire, owned by the Duke of Beaufort. During that time, the game was referred to as "The Game of Badminton," and the game's official name became Badminton.

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The Boat Race

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The event generally known as "The Boat Race" is a rowing race in England between the Oxford University Boat Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club, rowed between competing eights each spring on the Thames in London. It takes place generally on the last Saturday of March or the first Saturday of April. The formal title of the event is the Xchanging Boat Race, and it is also known as the University Boat Race and the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.

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In 2010 an estimated quarter of a million people watched the race live from the banks of the river and millions on television. Members of both teams are traditionally known as blues and each boat as a "Blue Boat", with Cambridge in light blue and Oxford dark blue. The first race was in 1829 and it has been held annually since 1856, with the exception of the two world wars. The most recent race was on Saturday, 26 March 2011 at 5.00pm with Oxford (on the Surrey Station) winning. The 2012 event is to be confirmed. The race is governed by a Joint Understanding between Oxford and Cambridge University Boat Clubs

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Polo The 2500 year-old game of polo is one of the fastest, exciting, and most skillful sports played today. It is gaining increasing popularity as a premier spectator sport and can be an easy game for the first-time spectator to enjoy. Imagine the excitement of seeing players on horses bumping and jostling with each other, like hockey on horseback, racing at top speeds down the field while striking a small ball with the precision of an experienced golfer.

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The first recorded game took place in 600 BC, between the Turkomans and Persians (the Turkomans won). In the 1850s British tea planters discovered the game in Manipur on the Burmese border with India. The first polo club in the world was formed by them at Silchar. Other clubs followed and, today, the oldest in the world is the Calcutta Club, founded in 1862. The first polo club in England was Monmouthshire, founded in 1872 by Capt. Francis “Tip” Herbert. Others, including Hurlingham, followed quickly. In 1876 Lt. Col. Thomas St. Quintin, introduced the game to Australia - he was the “Father of Australian Polo” and two of his brothers stayed on there as ranchers and helped the game to develop. In the same year, polo was introduced to the U.S.A. by James Gordon Bennett Jr, who had seen the game at Hurlingham while on a visit to England. Today, upwards of 77 countries play polo. It was an Olympic sport from 1900 to 1939 and has now been recognised again by the International Olympic Committee. The first official match in Argentina took place on 3rd September 1875, where the game had been taken by English and Irish engineers and ranchers.

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