Slide 1: CANCER
A DISEASE OF THE GENOME PREPARED BY:
Lonewalker CONTENTS: : CONTENTS: A.INTRODUCTION TO TUMORS
B.INTRODUCTION TO CANCER
C.CAUSES OF CANCER
D.SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
G.TREATMENT Slide 3: TUMORS:
ANY ABNORMAL SWELLING,LUMP OR MASS. NEOPLASM:
THE SCIENTIFIC TERM TO DESCRIBE AN ABNORMAL PROLIFERATION OF GENETICALLY ALTERED CELLS.
NEOPLASMS CAN BE BENIGN OR MALIGNANT. Slide 5: BENIGN NEOPLASM OR BENIGN TUMORS:
A TUMOR(SOLID NEOPLASM) THAT STOPS TO GROW BY ITSELF.
DOES NOT INVADE OTHER TISSUES.
DOES NOT FORM METASTASIS. MALIGNANT NEOPLASM OR MALIGNANT TUMORS:
SYNONYMOUS WITH CANCER.
CAN SPREAD FROM THE ORIGINAL BODY PART HAVING THE TUMOR TO THE OTHER PARTS AS WELL. CANCER : CANCER Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth (division beyond the normal limits), invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastasis (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood.) Characteristics of cancer cell : Characteristics of cancer cell Self-sufficient growth signals
Constitutively activated growth factor signalling
Resistance to anti-growth signals
Inactivated cell cycle checkpoint
Inactivated cell death pathway
Resistance to cell death
Activated anti- cell death signalling
Activated VEGF signalling
Invasion and metastasis
Loss of cell-to-cell interactions, etc. Classification of cancer: : Classification of cancer: Carcinoma
Lymphoma and leukemia
Germ cell tumor
Blastic tumor or blastoma Causes of cancer : Causes of cancer Mutation: chemical carcinogens
Mutation: ionizing radiation
Viral or bacterial infection
Immune system dysfunction
Tumor suppressor genes
Clonal evolution Slide 11: Mechanism for cancer Signs and symptoms : Signs and symptoms Systemic symptoms
Symptoms of metastasis
Local symptoms Preventive measures : Preventive measures Modifiable ("lifestyle") risk factors
Screening Diagnosis : Diagnosis Most cancers are initially recognized either because signs or symptoms appear or through screening
blood tests, X-rays, CT scans and endoscopy.
Cytogenetics and immunohistochemistry
DNA Microarray-based Cancer Diagnosis Treatment : Treatment Surgery
Monoclonal antibody therapy
Hormonal therapy Slide 18: “Illness is the night side of life, a more onerous citizenship. Everyone who is born holds dual citizenship, in the kingdom of the well and the kingdom of the sick. Although we all prefer to use only the good passport, sooner or later each of us is obliged, at least for a spell, to identify ourselves as citizens of that other place” Susan Sontag Thank You : Thank You