carbohydrate metabolism

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Metabolism: Carbohydrate on the verge Presented by Lonewalker

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Contents: 1.Introduction to metabolism 2.Introduction to carbohydrate 3.Glycolysis 4.Citric acid cycle 5.Gluconeogenesis 6.Glycogen metabolism A. Glycogenesis B. Glycogenolysis 7.Diabetes mellitus

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Metabolism: Derived from the Greek word ”metabolimos” meaning change or overthrow study of synthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of biomolecules ANABOLISM(SYNTHESIS)+CATABOLISM(DEGRADATION)=METABOLISM

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FUNCTIONS OF METABOLISM: Obtain energy from the environment Convert it into cell’s own characteristic molecule Polymerize monomeric precursors into macro molecules Synthesize and degrade biomolecules. Intermediary metabolism: Product of one reaction becomes reactant for another reaction.

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Metabolic pathways: Can be studied by dividing all life into two categories: 1.Autotrophs: organisms that use CO2 as their sole source of carbon. 2.Heterotrophs: life that obtain energy ingesting complex carbon compounds. In metabolic pathways the precursor is converted into product through a series of metabolic intermediates called metabolites.

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Carbohydrates: Compounds made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. General formula is CnH2nOn . Principal source of energy in the organisms. The central molecule is Glucose.

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Glycolysis First stage of carbohydrate catabolism Is an anaerobic process Simple sugars are broken down into Pyruvate All the organisms uses this process. Overall it uses 1 molecule of glucose, 2 ADP, 2 ATP, 2 NAD+ , 2 PO4 -- , and 10 different enzymes. The net energy production is about 96000 calorie or 8 ATP.

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Citric acid cycle: Also known as tricarboxylic acid cycle(TCA cycle) or the Krebs's cycle . Pyruvate formed after Glycolysis undergoes oxidative decarboxylation to form acetyl coenzyme A The acetyl co A gets completely oxidized into CO2 by the TCA cycle. 1 complete round of the cycle yields about 18000 calorie or 15 ATP.

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NADH and FADH2 produced during the Glycolysis and TCA cycle are oxidized in the presence of oxygen. Occurs in the mitochondria. Electron transport chain

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Glycogen synthesis It is known as glycogenesis. Synthesis of glycogen from glucose occurs. It is carried out by the enzyme glycogen synthase. Occurs when there is excess of glucose in the body thus helps in the control of glucose in the blood. Is stored in the liver. Occurs in all the tissues of the body but the major sites are liver and muscles.

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Glycogenolysis: Breakdown of glycogen.

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Diabetes Mellitus: Syndrome caused by the lack or diminished effectiveness of the endrogeneous insulin. Characterized by the hyperglycemia and deranged metabolism. Currently classified into two types: Insulin dependent-IDDM Non-insulin dependent-NIDDM