skin cancer

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PREPARED BY: MIRA TAMANG MITESH SHRESTHA Skin cancer

CONTENTS::

CONTENTS: INTRODUCTION TO TUMORS INTRODUCTION TO CANCER INTRODUCTION TO SKIN INTRODUCTION TO SKIN CANCER TYPES OF SKIN CANCER CAUSES OF SKIN CANCER DIAGNOSIS: (a) ABCDE RULE PREVENTIVE MEASURES TREATMENT CONCLUSION

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TUMORS: ANY ABNORMAL SWELLING,LUMP OR MASS. NEOPLASM: THE SCIENTIFIC TERM TO DESCRIBE AN ABNORMAL PROLIFERATION OF GENETICALLY ALTERED CELLS. NEOPLASMS CAN BE BENIGN OR MALIGNANT.

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BENIGN NEOPLASM OR BENIGN TUMORS: A TUMOR(SOLID NEOPLASM) THAT STOPS TO GROW BY ITSELF. DOES NOT INVADE OTHER TISSUES. DOES NOT FORM METASTASIS. MALIGNANT NEOPLASM OR MALIGNANT TUMORS: SYNONYMOUS WITH CANCER. CAN SPREAD FROM THE ORIGINAL BODY PART HAVING THE TUMOR TO THE OTHER PARTS AS WELL.

CANCER:

CANCER Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display : uncontrolled growth invasion metastasis

Characteristics of cancer cell:

Characteristics of cancer cell Self-sufficient growth signals Constitutively activated growth factor signalling Resistance to anti-growth signals Inactivated cell cycle checkpoint Immortality Inactivated cell death pathway Resistance to cell death Activated anti- cell death signalling Sustained angiogenesis Activated VEGF signalling Invasion and metastasis Loss of cell-to-cell interactions, etc.

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Mechanism for cancer

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SKIN Human body’s largest organ Helps in maintaining the homeostasis in the body Produces vitamin D Physical barrier to infection

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Skin cancer Most common type of cancer. Occurs due to abnormal division of skin cells. May be benign or malignant.

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Types of skin cancer: Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Melanoma

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Basal cell carcinoma Most common type of skin cancer Less serious as they divide slowly and rarely metastasize (at about 1 in every 1000) Pearly translucency to fleshy color

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SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA Second most common type of skin cancer More serious than BCC because they can metastasize (about 1 in every 100) red, crusted, or scaly patch or bump Pain is often characteristic

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MELANOMA Most serious kind of skin cancer because it may spread quickly from the skin through the lymph nodes or blood, to internal organs. Rarest of all skin cancers. Occurs in melanocytes.

Causes of skin cancer:

Causes of skin cancer Ultraviolet Radiation : UV A is the primary cause of melanoma UV B is the primary cause SCC and BCC Heredity

People at risk who::

People at risk who: Have light skin Live in geographic regions closer to the equator Work outdoors Already have had skin cancer

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SKIN TYPE (Fitzpatrick) *RESPONSE TO SUN EXPOSURE EXAMPLES SUSCEPTIBILITY I Always sunburn, don't tan Fair-skinned & freckled Blue-eyed, Celts Very High II Always sunburn Tan minimally Fair-skinned, blonde haired, Blue-eyed, Scandinavians High III Sometimes sunburn, Tan moderately Fair-skinned, brown hair, Brown-eyed; Unexposed skin is white Average IV Seldom sunburn, Tan easily Light brown skin, dark brown hair, brown-eyed; Unexposed skin is tan; Mediterranean, Hispanic Low V Rarely sunburn, Tan profusely Brown skinned; darker Mediterranean, Orientals, Eastern Indians Very low VI Never sunburn, Deeply pigmented Blacks Minimal

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DIAGNOSIS Skin cancers can be identified just by looking. Biopsy

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Prevention of skin cancer Staying out of the sun. Avoiding both direct sunlight, and sunlight reflected from water, sand and snow. Shielding the skin with tightly knit clothing. Avoiding the sunless tanning. Using sunscreen with SPF 15.

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Treatment of skin cancer: SURGERY CHEMOTHERAPY RADIATION THERAPY

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SOURCES WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM WWW.EHEALTHMD.COM WWW.CANCER.ORG

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION WEAR YOUR SUNSCREEN!!!

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THANK YOU

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