Slide 1: Presentation on
FUND FLOW STATEMENT
PGDM-07003 Slide 2: Why we prepare fund flow statement?
The balance sheet and income statement are the traditional basic financial statement of a business enterprise. A serious limitation of these statements is that they do not provide information regarding changes in the firm’s financial position during a particular period of time. They fail to answer following question
What funds were available during the accounting period and for what purpose these funds were utilized?
Have long term sources been adequate to finance fixed asset purchase?
Does the firm possess adequate working capital?
How much funds have been generated from operations?
Why did the firm not pay dividend in spite of adequate profit? Slide 3: The balance sheet is merely a static statement. It is statement of asset and liabilities of the business as on particular date.
The fund flow statement overcomes these limitations of basic financial statement. Fund flow statement will provide us information about different sources of fund and their various uses in particular time. Slide 4: MEANING OF FUND
The term fund has a variety of meaning such as cash fund, capital fund and working capital fund.
1.Cash fund –In a narrow sense, fund means only cash. ‘Cash flow statement’ portrays net effect of the various business transactions on cash into account receipts & disbursement of cash.
This concept of preparing fund flow statement is not accepted, as there are many such transactions which do not affect cash but represent the flow of fund .
for example: purchase of furniture on credit does not affect cash but there is flow of fund.
2. Capital fund –Here fund means all financial resources used in the business, whether in the form of men, money, material, machine & others.
3.Net working capital -Net working capital means difference between current asset and current liabilities .funds generally refers to cash or cash equivalent or to working capital. Slide 5: MEANING OF FLOW
The term ‘flow’ refers to changes or transfer and therefore the ‘flow of funds’ means transfer of economic values from one asset to another, from one liability to another, from one asset to liabilities or vice-versa or a combination of these. So flow of fund refers to increase or decrease in net working capital.
The increase or decrease in net working capital will take place only when one account, out of two accounts to be affected in a transaction ,is a current account i.e. current asset or current liabilities and the other account is non current account i.e. fixed asset or long term liability or capital.
When a change in non current account is followed by a change in another non current account, it does not amount to flow of fund. It is because, in such case, neither the working capital increase nor decrease. Slide 6: For example
Machinery a/c Dr
To share capital a/c
(Machinery purchase in consideration of share)
In the above transaction both accounts are non current accounts which do not at all affect current asset and current liability. Therefore working capital will remain unaffected i.e. there will be no flow of fund.
When changes in one current account results in a changes in other current account ,it also does not affect working capital i.e. there is no flow of funds.
Cash a/c Dr
To debtor a/c
(Cash received from debtor)
It represents an increase of cash –a current asset account and decrease of debtor again a current asset account .thus there will be no net changes in the amount of working capital, although the composition of working capital will be affected . Slide 7: In the above figure the dotted line displays there will be no flow of fund & the dark line displays the flow of fund. Slide 8: Preparation of Fund Flow Statement
The changes which occurred in the current accounts as a result flow of fund are reflected in a statement known as ‘schedule of changes in working capital’ .
The similar changes in non current accounts are shown in ‘Fund Flow Statement’.
Therefore, following two statements under this techniques .
1. Statement or Schedule of Changes in Working Capital.
2. Statement of Sources and Uses of Funds or Funds Flow Statement.
Schedule of Changes in Working Capital
It discloses the changes in individual item of current asset & current liabilities between two period & there effect on working capital. Working capital will increase when there is an increase in current asset and decrease in current liabilities, whereas, working capital will decrease when there is a decrease in current asset & increase in current liabilities.
Net increase in working capital is treated as use of funds & the net decrease in working capital is treated as source of funds. Slide 9: Statement or Schedule of Changes in Working Capital. Slide 10: Meaning of fund flow statement :
This statement reveals resources from which funds were obtain by the firm hand the specific uses to which such funds were applied. The effectiveness of financial management in procuring funds from various sources & using them effectively for generating income without sacrificing the financial position of the firm is reflected in fund flow statement .
Definitions of fund flow statement :
In the words of Foulke, R.A., “a statement of source and application of fund is a technical device design to analysis the changes in the financial condition of business enterprises between two dates”.
According to : Almond Coleman, “ The fund flow statement summarizing the significant financial changes which were occurred between the beginning & the end of a company’s accounting periods”. Slide 11: This fund flow statement has two parts :
Sources of fund
Application of fund
The difference between these two parts that is sources & uses of funds represents net changes in working capital.
The excess of sources of funds over uses of fund is the net increase in working capital & excess of uses over sources of fund is net decrease in working capital.
The amount of net increase or decrease as shown in fund flow statement should be equal to the amount shown by schedule of working capital changes. Fund Flow Statement : Fund Flow Statement Slide 13: Fund from operations :
The profit made by a firm through normal operations is a major source of funds. The amount of sales as shown in the P&L A/c is a source of funds by way of increase in cash , debtor and B/R. Profit & loss Adjustment a\c : Profit & loss Adjustment a\c -Comparative Balance sheet of Z Ltd. As on year 2000 and 2001 were as follow : -Comparative Balance sheet of Z Ltd. As on year 2000 and 2001 were as follow You are giving information:- : You are giving information:- Net profit for the year 2001 amounted 6675.
Dividend amounted to Rs.5000 was paid during the year.
Prepare a statement of sources and uses of fund. Schedule of Changes in Working Capital : Schedule of Changes in Working Capital Fund flow statement : Fund flow statement Profit & loss adjustment a\c : Profit & loss adjustment a\c Accumulative deprecation Building Furniture : Accumulative deprecation Building Furniture Furniture a\c