Covalent_Bonding_AC

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Learning Targets : 

I can explain why covalent bonds form. I can explain the relationships among potential energy, distance between approaching atoms, bond length and bond energy. I can state the octet rule. I can determine the number of valence electrons for a given atom. Learning Targets

Formation of a Covalent Bond : 

Nature favors chemical bonding because most atoms have lower potential energy when they are bonded to other atoms. Formation of a Covalent Bond

Formation of a Covalent Bond : 

Each atom has a positive nucleus in the center and negative electrons surrounding the nucleus in a spherical pattern. The positively charged nuclei are attracted to the negatively charged electrons. Formation of a Covalent Bond

Formation of a Covalent Bond : 

As the atoms approach each other, the charged particles interact: nucleus on one atom attracts electrons on the other atom. Formation of a Covalent Bond

Formation of a Covalent Bond : 

As the atoms approach one another, the potential energy decreases. A bond forms when the potential energy is at a minimum. Formation of a Covalent Bond

Formation of a Covalent Bond : 

If the atoms continue to approach one another once the bond forms, the nuclei will begin to repel one another and the potential energy will start to increase. Formation of a Covalent Bond

Characteristics of a Covalent Bond : 

Bond length is the distance between two covalently bonded atoms at the minimum potential energy. Bond energy is the amount of energy required to break a covalent bond. The more energy required to break a bond, the stronger the bond. Characteristics of a Covalent Bond

The Octet Rule : 

The octet rule states that atoms tend to lose, gain or share electrons until they are surrounded by 8 electrons in their valence shell. The number of valence electrons is equal to the group number. The Octet Rule 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A

Practice Problems : 

What is the relationship between bond length and bond energy? Practice Problems Refer to the table below to answer the following questions.

Practice Problems : 

What is the relationship between bond length and bond energy? The bond length decreases as the strength of the bond increases. Practice Problems Refer to the table below to answer the following questions.

Practice Problems : 

Arrange the following in order of increasing bond strength: C–Cl, C–I, H–F, and I–I Practice Problems Refer to the table below to answer the following questions.

Practice Problems : 

Arrange the following in order of increasing bond strength: C–Cl, C–I, H–F, and I–I I – I, C – I, C – Cl, and H – F Practice Problems Refer to the table below to answer the following questions.

Practice Problems : 

Which pair of bonded atoms has the strongest bond? Practice Problems Refer to the table below to answer the following questions.

Practice Problems : 

Which pair of bonded atoms has the strongest bond? H – F Practice Problems Refer to the table below to answer the following questions.

Practice Problems : 

Which pair of bonded atoms has the weakest bond? Practice Problems Refer to the table below to answer the following questions.

Practice Problems : 

Which pair of bonded atoms has the weakest bond? I – I Practice Problems Refer to the table below to answer the following questions.

Practice Problems : 

Arrange the following bond lengths in order of increasing bond strength: 72 pm, 149 pm, 53 pm, and 398 pm Practice Problems

Practice Problems : 

Arrange the following bond lengths in order of increasing bond strength: 72 pm, 149 pm, 53 pm, and 398 pm 398 pm, 149 pm, 72 pm, and 53 pm Practice Problems

Practice Problems : 

Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following atoms. Lithium Practice Problems

Practice Problems : 

Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following atoms. Lithium = 1 Practice Problems

Practice Problems : 

Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following atoms. Lithium = 1 Sulfur Practice Problems

Practice Problems : 

Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following atoms. Lithium = 1 Sulfur = 6 Practice Problems

Practice Problems : 

Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following atoms. Lithium = 1 Sulfur = 6 Carbon Practice Problems

Practice Problems : 

Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following atoms. Lithium = 1 Sulfur = 6 Carbon = 4 Practice Problems

Practice Problems : 

Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following atoms. Lithium = 1 Sulfur = 6 Carbon = 4 Neon Practice Problems

Practice Problems : 

Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following atoms. Lithium = 1 Sulfur = 6 Carbon = 4 Neon = 8 Practice Problems