# ELECTRIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS VOL 1

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### INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS :

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS Prepared by: Engr. Lizette Ivy G. Catadman

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ELECTRICITY IS A FORM OF ENERGY. IT IS AMONG THE MOST IMPORTANT IN CURRENT DAY SOCIETY. MODERN SOCIETY IS ALMOST TOTALLY DEPENDENT UPON ITS AVAILABILITY.

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ELECTRICAL ENERGY ELECTRICAL ENERGY IS THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRICAL CHARGES. EVERYTHING IS MADE OF TINY PARTICLES CALLED ATOMS. ATOMS ARE MADE OF EVEN SMALLER PARTICLES CALLED ELECTRONS, PROTONS, AND NEUTRONS. APPLYING A FORCE CAN MAKE SOME OF THE ELECTRONS MOVE. ELECTRICAL CHARGES MOVING THROUGH A WIRE IS CALLED ELECTRICITY.

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LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY It is a fundamental principle of physics: the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes. It’s not about saving energy. It says that when we use energy, energy doesn’t disappear. It merely changes from one form into another. ENERGY IS NEITHER CREATED NOR DESTROYED. THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF ENERGY IN THE UNIVERSE IS CONSTANT, ALTHOUGH ENERGY CAN BE TRANSFORMED FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER.

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENERGY EFFICIENCY IS THE AMOUNT OF USEFUL ENERGY YOU GET FROM A SYSTEM. A PERFECT, ENERGY-EFFICIENT MACHINE WOULD CHANGE ALL THE ENERGY PUT IN IT INTO USEFUL WORK—AN IMPOSSIBLE DREAM. CONVERTING ONE FORM OF ENERGY INTO ANOTHER FORM ALWAYS INVOLVES A LOSS OF USABLE ENERGY. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IS SIMPLY THE PROCESS OF DOING MORE WITH LESS. THE GOAL IS TO ACCOMPLISH THE SAME TASKS AND FUNCTIONS AS BEFORE WHILE USING LESS ENERGY.

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY ELECTRICITY AS A FORM OF ENERGY CANNOT BE STORED EFFICIENTLY. THERE ARE PROGRAMS AIMED AT REDUCING THE ENERGY USED BY SPECIFIC END-USE DEVICES AND SYSTEMS, TYPICALLY WITHOUT AFFECTING THE SERVICES PROVIDED LIKE: PROGRAMS THAT REDUCE OVERALL ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (GENERALLY ACHIEVED) BY SUBSTITUTING TECHNOLOGICALLY MORE ADVANCED EQUIPMENT TO PRODUCE THE SAME LEVEL OF END-USE SERVICES (E.G. LIGHTING, HEATING, MOTOR DRIVE, ETC.) WITH LESS ELECTRICITY.

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SOURCES OF ENERGY Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy can be converted into secondary energy sources like electricity and hydrogen.

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SOURCES OF ENERGY

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SOURCES OF ENERGY

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RESISTANCE, R in Ohms or Ω IT IS THE PROPERTY OF AN ELECTRIC CONDUCTOR BY WHICH IT OPPOSES A FLOW OF ELECTRICITY AND DISSIPATES ELECTRICAL ENERGY AWAY FROM THE CIRCUIT, USUALLY AS HEAT.

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POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE OR VOLTAGE, V in Volts IT IS THE DIFFERENCE IN ELECTRIC POTENTIAL BETWEEN TWO POINTS IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD. IT IS THE WORK THAT HAS TO BE DONE IN TRANSFERRING UNIT POSITIVE CHARGE FROM ONE POINT TO THE OTHER.

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POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE OR VOLTAGE, V in Volts

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ELECTRIC CURRENT, I in Amperes or A or Amps IT IS THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRIC CHARGE CARRIERS. IN A WIRE, ELECTRIC CURRENT IS A FLOW OF ELECTRONS THAT HAVE BEEN DISLODGED FROM ATOMS AND IS A MEASURE OF THE QUANTITY OF ELECTRICAL CHARGE PASSING ANY POINT OF THE WIRE PER UNIT TIME. CONVENTIONALLY, THE DIRECTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT IS THAT OF THE FLOW OF THE POSITIVE IONS.

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ELECTRIC CURRENT, I in Amperes or A or Amps THE NET TRANSFER OF ELECTRIC CHARGE PER UNIT TIME. THE PASSAGE OF ELECTRIC CURRENT INVOLVES A TRANSFER OF ENERGY. EXCEPT IN THE CASE OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, A CURRENT ALWAYS HEATS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH IT PASSES.

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ELECTRIC CURRENT, I in Amperes or A or Amps

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ELECTRIC CIRCUIT ELECTRIC CIRCUIT IS AN UNBROKEN PATH ALONG WHICH AN ELECTRIC CURRENT EXISTS OR IS INTENDED OR ABLE TO FLOW. IT IS THE PATH THAT TRANSMITS ELECTRIC CURRENT. A CIRCUIT INCLUDES A BATTERY OR GENERATOR THAT GIVES ENERGY TO THE CHARGED PARTICLES; DEVICES THAT USE CURRENT, SUCH AS LAMPS, MOTORS, OR ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS; AND CONNECTING WIRES OR TRANSMISSION LINES.

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

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OHM’S LAW FOR MANY CONDUCTORS OF ELECTRICITY, THE ELECTRIC CURRENT WHICH WILL FLOW THROUGH THEM IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE VOLTAGE APPLIED TO THEM.