WRITING YOUR PROJECT STUDY PAPER : WRITING YOUR PROJECT STUDY PAPER Engr. Lizette Ivy G. Catadman FIRST THINGS FIRST! : FIRST THINGS FIRST! Pick your own project study topic, decide as early as possible.
Choose something you really like.
It could even end up as an exhibit item, earn an award or recognition, a feather on your cap, and land you a job.
Understand what is expected and prepare adequately for it. RESEARCH : RESEARCH Consumes the largest chunk of time.
Start with the easy stuff, progressing towards the harder ones.
Assign each one a research area.
Don’t be afraid to ask questions to your advisers, professors, classmates, friends, and etc. GENERATE : GENERATE Generates as many ideas, solutions, methods, possibilities, and paths as possible.
Free Writing or Brainstorming
Each idea must be followed by research.
Evaluate each idea based on the results of your research.
Make a decision. WORK IT! : WORK IT! Start making your requirements in pursuit of making your project study project and paper.
Problem Definition Statement
Final Project Defense DOUBLE-CHECK RESULTS OF WORK AND TEND TO THE SMALL DETAILS : DOUBLE-CHECK RESULTS OF WORK AND TEND TO THE SMALL DETAILS Review written work for grammar, spelling, punctuation, and content.
Consult your Form and Style Adviser.
Does everything make sense and easily understood?
Make sure everything is properly written and arranged, and the thought of the paper is cohesive. WRITE IT UP! GO THE EXTRA MILE! : WRITE IT UP! GO THE EXTRA MILE! Finalize your paper.
Fix paper according to the corrections done by the Form and Style Adviser, Technical Adviser, and Panelists.
Print it out.
Edit it again. Fix paper again.
Have paper approved by the Form and Style Adviser, Technical Adviser, and Panelists.
Print it in its final form. Reproduce. CHOOSING A TOPIC : CHOOSING A TOPIC “Ideas are like rabbits. You get a couple and learn how to handle them, and pretty soon you have a dozen.”
John Steinbeck CHOOSING A TOPIC : CHOOSING A TOPIC Identifying a general subject area.
Limiting and defining the topic.
Stating the topic as a question or as a problem statement. CHOOSING A TOPIC : CHOOSING A TOPIC The topic should be of importance.
Worth the time and effort you will be required to work it.
It should possibly matter not only to you but also to people.
It should deal with their lives and their concerns. CHOOSING A TOPIC : CHOOSING A TOPIC The topic should be of personal interest to you.
Otherwise, you may not be able to sustain your interest in it long enough to even complete the paper.
On the other hand, if you are genuinely interested, you will exert time and effort that will ensure the completion. CHOOSING A TOPIC : CHOOSING A TOPIC The topic should be interesting and intelligible to the general reader.
Avoid topics that are highly technical or specialized and require an expertise you should not presume to possess. CHOOSING A TOPIC : CHOOSING A TOPIC The topic should be relatively new and recent.
Avoid those that have already been proposed and explored by students and professionals for so long.
Topics that have already been proven, done, and in existence.
It will be a waste of time and effort. CHOOSING A TOPIC : CHOOSING A TOPIC The topic should be of manageable scale.
It can satisfactorily be completed under the conditions and constraints by the syllabus and university policy on incomplete grades.
Length of the paper.
Duration of the project. CHOOSING A TOPIC : CHOOSING A TOPIC Availability of resources.
Research materials should be available and accessible.
Previous project study reports.
Consult an encyclopedia.
Search an index.
Surf the net.
Go through journals, magazines, newspapers, and other reading materials. WHERE TO BEGINFree Writing : WHERE TO BEGINFree Writing Writing without stopping, without restrictions.
Write whatever comes to mind without regard to the grammatical structure or quality and coherence of your ideas.
Set a time limit or number of pages you have to fill up. WHERE TO BEGINFree Writing : WHERE TO BEGINFree Writing Steps (continued)
Write continuously. Write whatever comes to mind.
If your mind wanders off to another topic, pursue this new direction and just write.
Do not worry about leaving the earlier topic “undeveloped”.
You are not expected to come up with an elaborate description of your topic. WHERE TO BEGINFree Writing : Steps (continued)
When you have reached your time limit or page limit, stop.
Go back to what you have written and choose a phrase or sentence or passage that seems promising. WHERE TO BEGINFree Writing WHERE TO BEGINBrainstorming : WHERE TO BEGINBrainstorming It is a process used to address various components or phases of a project or activity.
It can be used to define the problems, to identify alternatives, and to identify constraints.
It is a necessary process especially at the start of each project, each phase, and each evaluation. WHERE TO BEGINBrainstorming : WHERE TO BEGINBrainstorming Identify projects that can be done.
Sit in a circle. Leader is moderator. Secretary take notes.
Choose a rotation direction.
One after the other, following the rotation direction, give an idea. Just one. Reserve the rest for the next and succeeding rotations. WHERE TO BEGINBrainstorming : WHERE TO BEGINBrainstorming Steps (continued)
It will go around and around.
If a certain member can’t come up with an idea when it is his/her turn, he/she can say “pass”.
Do not interrupt the flow. No objections, comments, corrections, or insults are allowed.
Speak only when it is your turn.
The process stops when everyone has passed. TOPICS: SUBJECT AREAS : TOPICS: SUBJECT AREAS Electronics
Control and Instrumentation
Monitoring & Sensors
Annunciators & Displays
Feasibility Studies ASKING W-H QUESTIONS : ASKING W-H QUESTIONS Who?
Author/s, Proposer/s, Team
Beneficiaries or Users
New gadget, equipment, devise, procedure, etc.
Meaning, Purpose, Value, etc.
Features, Capabilities, Capacities, etc.
Histories, Causes, Effects, etc. ASKING W-H QUESTIONS : ASKING W-H QUESTIONS Where?
All things are located in a certain place.
Help focus on the physical details of the environment.
How big? Area?
How does it look?
Help create a clear picture of the place. ASKING W-H QUESTIONS : ASKING W-H QUESTIONS When?
When will it be done? Or, when was it done?
For how long?
When is it needed?
Until when is it needed?
Explanation of ideas.
Give reasons and justifications.
Help you understand your topic better. ASKING W-H QUESTIONS : ASKING W-H QUESTIONS How?
Leads to a discussion of a method or procedure.
Describe different steps and stages or phases in a particular process, and then explain their importance. NARROWING THE TOPIC : NARROWING THE TOPIC “There is more learning in the question itself than the answer.”
Andrew Weremy NARROWING THE TOPIC : NARROWING THE TOPIC Now that you have something to write about, how do you set limitations to the topic?
Make it significant, not merely superficial.
Defining the scope of the topic
Too broad NARROWING THE TOPIC : NARROWING THE TOPIC Topics that are too broad.
Present problems because there is too much information out there.
You may find yourself drowning in a sea of facts and data.
The result of insufficient reading or an unclear purpose.
Prohibits you from setting the necessary parameters needed to limit your topic.
Learn how to deal with the information you collect. NARROWING THE TOPIC : NARROWING THE TOPIC Topics that are too narrow.
Problems, extremely difficult to gather enough information to write the paper within the given time frame. NARROWING THE TOPIC : NARROWING THE TOPIC Ways to narrow your topic.
Read around your topic.
People don’t read around their topic because they think it saves them from having to do extra research.
Do background reading to see what kind of topics might be developed and what kind of information is actually available.
General understanding of the issues and topics at stake. NARROWING THE TOPIC : NARROWING THE TOPIC Ways to narrow your topic. (Continued)
Ask questions about your topic.
Asking the right questions.
Think first and determine what you already know about the topic.
Contact people who consider themselves official or unofficial authorities on your particular topic.
Graffiti Poster NARROWING THE TOPIC : NARROWING THE TOPIC Ways to narrow your topic. (Continued)
Find the Focusing Question.
One particular focus, tentative umbrella question.
Focusing questions are verifiable using known knowledge and techniques but provide enough room for an in-depth discussion.
Try to be as specific as possible. NARROWING THE TOPIC : NARROWING THE TOPIC Ways to narrow your topic. (Continued)
The “So what?” Test: Establishing a purpose for your topic.
So what? Who cares?
Think of your toughest teacher and how you are going to defend your topic.
This will force you to justify why you choose this particular topic, worthy enough to spend time, resources, and efforts on. NARROWING THE TOPIC : NARROWING THE TOPIC Ways to narrow your topic. (Continued)
Developing subordinate questions.
Build a list of follow-up questions that can help you explore the topic further.
These should be related to your main focusing question.
Asserting a tentative problem statement.
The paper you will write is simply an elaboration on the answer to your problem.