PowerPoint Presentation: EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT Early childhood: Two to six years: Early childhood: Two to six years I- PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT 1- Body growth ; Individual differences in body size are apparent during early child hood. Children add 2 to 3 inches in height. About 5 pounds in weight each year. B- skeletal growth; - Between ages 2-6 approximately 45 new epiphyses or growth centers in which cartilage hardens into bone. - children start to lose their primary or baby teeth. 2- BRAIN DEVELOPMENT: 2- BRAIN DEVELOPMENT Between ages 2-6 years, the brain increases from 70 to 90 percent of its adult weight. - the cerebral cortex is made up of two hemi - spheres * The left hemisphere is active between 3 and 6 * The right hemisphere increases steadily throughout early and middle childhood. language skills increase → children's increasing control over behavior. * Spatial skills develop gradually over childhood. HANDEDNESS:: HANDEDNESS: what is handedness? - Hand preference is evident in 10 % of 1-year-olds and strengthens during early childhood. A strong hand preference reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain. The individual's dominant cerebal hemisphere - to carry out skilled motor action. Is handedness hereditary? Researchers disagree on this issue. One genetic theory proposes that most children inherit a gene that biases them for right-handedness and a left – dominant cerebral hemisphere. PowerPoint Presentation: * Cerebellum, a structure that aids in balance and control of body movement. * The reticular formation, a structure of the brain that maintains alertness and consciousness. * The corpus callosum is a large bundle of fibers that connects the two cortical hemispheres. * It supports integration of many aspects of thinking. 3- INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL GROWTH AND HEALTH.: 3- INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL GROWTH AND HEALTH. Heredity remains important, environmental factors continue to play crucial roles. A- Heredity and hormones. - Children's physical size and rate of growth are related to those of their parents. (genes influence growth by controlling the body's production of hormones). - The pituitary gland located at the base of the brain plays an critical role by releasing two hormones. a- growth hormone (GH) is ne cessary For development of all body tissues expect the central nervous system and genitals. b- thy riod – stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxin thyroxin is necessary for normal development of the nerve cells of the brain and for GH to have its full impact on body size. b. Emotional well-being: b. Emotional well-being - Preschoolers with very stressful home lives suffer more respiratory and intestinal illnesses. - Extreme emotional deprivation can interfere with production of GH and lead to psychosocial dwarfism . -Psychosocial dwarfism a growth disoder appears between 2-15 years of age. - It includes very short stature – decreased GH secretion, immature skeletal age . C. Nutrition: C. Nutrition The decline in appetite is normal. - Preschooler need a high – quality diet. They require the same food adults do – only smaller amounts. D. In factious disease: D. In factious disease In well – nourished children, ordinary childhood illnesses have no effect on physical growth. A- In factious disease and malnutrition: - Poor diet depresses the body's immune system, making children far more susceptible to disease. - Disease is a major cause of malnutrition. -Illness reduces appetite and limits the body's ability to absorb foods. - These outcomes are severe in children with intestinal infections. (diarrhea) - What is oral rehydration therapy? (0RT) Sick children are given a glucose, salt and water solution that quickly replaces fluids the body loses. b- Immunization - In industrialized nations, childhood diseases have declined during the past half-century, largely due to wide spread immunization of infants and young children. * in ability to pay for vaccines is the one cause of in adequate immunization. * Misconceptions also contribute. * Some parents have been influenced by media reports. * Public education programs directed at increasing parental knowledge about the importance and safety of timely immunizations are badly needed. B. Immunization:: B. Immunization: - In industrialized nations, child hood diseases have declined during the past half- century, largely due to wide spread immunization of infants and young childhood. * Inability to pay for vaccines is the one cause of inadequate immunization. * Misconceptions also contribute. * Some parents have been influenced by media reports. * Public education programs directed at increasing parental knowledge about the importance and safely of timely immunizations are badly needed. E. Child hood injuries:: E. Child hood injuries: - Unintentional injuries – auto collisions, pedestrian accidents, drownings, poisonings, wounds, burns, falls and swallowing of foreign objects. - What are the factors related to child hood injuries? * Individual differences. * Temperamental characteristics (irritability, negative mood, inattentiveness). * Poverty, low parental education, and more children in the home. * Broad societal conditions. - How can we prevent child hood injuries?: - How can we prevent child hood injuries? * Laws (requiring car safely seats, child resistant caps on medicine bottles…) * Communities can help by modifying their physical environments (public transportation, play grounds …) * Free easily installed window guards can be given to families in high- rise apartment building to prevent falls. * Wide spread media and information campaigns can in form parents and children about safely issues. * A variety of programs based on behavior modification (counselors helped parents identify dangers in home) 3. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT: 3. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT - An explosion of new motor skills occurs in early child hood. - Each of which builds on the simpler movement patterns of toddler hood. - Children integrate previously acquired skills into more complex, dynamic systems of actions. - Their bodies grow larger and stronger. - Their central nervous system develop. - Their environments present new challenges. a. What is Gross Motor Development?: a. What is Gross Motor Development? The Center of gravity shifts downward, toward the trunk. → Paving the way for new motor skills involving large muscles of the body. b. What is fine Motor Development?: b. What is fine Motor Development? - The control of hands and fingers improves → young children put puzzles together. Build with small blocks. Cut, paste. - Fine motor progress is most apparent in two areas . 1- Children's core of their own bodies. 2- drawings and paintings * Self – help skills :- children become self – sufficient at dressing and feeding * The most complex self help kill of early childhood is shoe tying. * Success requires a longer attention span. * Shoe tying, drawing and writing offer the close connection between motor and cognitive development. * From Scribble to pictures.: * From Scribble to pictures. A variety of factors combine with fine motor control to influence the development of children's artful representation. - Cognitive advances; the realization that pictures can serve as symbols and gains in planning skills and spatial understanding→ move from a focus on separate objects to a broader visual perspective. - How does drawing progress? Scribbles → first representational forms → more realistic drawings. - How do children's drawings vary due to culture? : - How do children's drawings vary due to culture? * Culture rich with artistic traditions → drawings reflect the conventions of their culture and are more elaborate. * Culture with little interest in art → produce simple forms. * Early Printing:: * Early Printing: * Preschoolers (1) experiment with lines and shapes (+) (2) notice print in story books (+) (3) observe people writing → try to print letters and later words. * The first word printed is the child's name. C. How Individual Differences affect Motor skills?: C. How Individual Differences affect Motor skills? - Body building contributes to the superior performance. - Sex differences. - Trends suggest social pressures for boys to be active and physically skilled and for girls to play quietly. - Children master the motor skills of early childhood as a part of their every day play. - Social climate created by adults can enhance or dampen preschoolers’ motor progress. II- COGNITIVE DEVELODMENT: II- COGNITIVE DEVELODMENT Piaget’s theory : The preoperational stage . * As children move from the sensorimotor to the preoperational stage, the most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in representational or symbolic activity. a- Advances in Mental representation:: a- Advances in Mental representation: * language is our most flexible means of mental representation. * By detaching thought from action, it permits for more efficient thinking. * We can deal with past, present, future at once and combine concepts in unique way. Despite the power of language, Piaget didn’t believe that it plays a major role in cognitive development. * He believed that sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience which children then label with words. b. Make – Believe play: b. Make – Believe play * It is an excellent example of the development of representation during early childhood. * Piaget believed that through pretending , young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes. How does Make – Believe develop?: How does Make – Believe develop? * (example page 216) * This example illustrates three important changes. * Each reflects the preschool child’s growing symbolic mastery. 1. Overtime, play increasingly detaches from the real-life conditions associated with it. * In early pretending toddlers use only realistic objects (a toy telephone to talk). * Children younger than age 2 will pretend to drink from a cup but refuse to pretend a cup is a hat. * After age of 2, children pretend with less realistic toys such as a block standing in for a telephone receiver. 2. Play becomes less self- centered with age: 2. Play becomes less self- centered with age * At First make- believe is directed to ward the self. * Later, children direct pretend actions to ward. Other objects, as when the child feeds a doll. * In 3 years they become detached participants who make a doll feed itself. Make believe becomes less self – centered Play: Play 3. * Play gradually includes more complex scheme combinations * Children can pretend to drink from a cup but he doesn’t yet combine pouring and drinking. * Later children combine schemes with those of peers in socio dramatic play. * By the end of early childhood, children have a sophistcated understanding of role relation ships and story lines. * Benefits of Make – Believe * Play not only reflects but also contributes to children's cognitive and social skills. * Make believe strengthens a wide variety of mental abilities. Including attention, memory, logical reasoning, language and literacy imagination, creativity and the ability to reflect one's own thing. C- Limitation of preoperational thought: : C- Limitation of preoperational thought: * Piaget described preschoolers in terms of what they cannot, rather than can understand. * According to piaget, young children are not capable of operations. (mental actions that obey logical rules). * Children's thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect of a situation at a time and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment. * What is Egocentrism?: * What is Egocentrism? * It is the most serious deficiency of preoperational thinking. * It is the failure to distinguish the symbolic view points of others from one's own. * When children first mentally represent the world, they tend to focus on their own point of view. * They often assume that the others perceive, think and feel the same way they do. * Egocentrism involves three mountains problem.: * Egocentrism involves three mountains problem. 1- Animistic thinking;- the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities such as thoughts, wishes, feelings and intentions. 2- Young children egocentrically assign human purposes to physical events. 3- Preschooler egocentric bias prevents them from accommodating, or reflecting on and revising their faulty reasoning in response to their physical and social worlds. * According to piaget, Are children enable to conserve? : * According to piaget, Are children enable to conserve? * Conservation refers to the idea that certain physical characteristic of objects remain the same, even when their out ward appearance changes. * Preoperational children's inability to conserve highlights several related aspects of their thinking. 1- Their understanding is centered or characterized by centration . 2- Children are easily distracted by the perceptual appearance of objects. 3- Children treat the initial and final states of the water as un related events, ignoring the dynamic transformation. * What is the most important illogical feature of preoperational thought?: * What is the most important illogical feature of preoperational thought? It is irreversibility, an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction returning to the starting point. * What does lack of logical operations lead to? It leads preschoolers to have difficulty with hierarchical classification. * What is hierarchical classification? It is the organization of objects into classes and sub classes on the basis of similarities and differences . D- Follow–Up Research on preoperational thought : D- Follow–Up Research on preoperational thought * Researchers have challenged Piaget`s account of a cognitively deficient preschooler. * Many piagetian problems contain unfamiliar elements or too many pieces of information for a young children to handle at once. * Non egocentric responses appear in young children's conversations: (preschoolers adapt their speech to fit the needs of their listeners. * They don't use words as “big” or “little” in a rigid, egocentric fashion. They adjust their descriptions, taking context in account. * Piaget described preschoolers` egocentrism as a t endency rather than an ability . Why did Piaget overestimate children's animistic beliefs? : Why did Piaget overestimate children's animistic beliefs? * He asked children about objects with which they have little direct experience. * Preschoolers’ responses result from incomplete knowledge about objects. * Why do children deny that magic can alter their every day experiences?: * Why do children deny that magic can alter their every day experiences? * Children become more familiar with physical events and principles so children's magical beliefs decline. * How quickly children give up certain fantastic ideas varies with religion and culture . What do many studies reveal about illogical characteristics that Piaget saw in the preoperational stage? : What do many studies reveal about illogical characteristics that Piaget saw in the preoperational stage? * When preschoolers are given tasks that are simplified and relevant to their every day lives, they do better that Piaget might have expected. * Preschoolers` ability to reason about transformations is evident on other problems. * 3- and 4- year – olds use logical, causal expressions such as if – then and because. * Illogical reasoning seems to occur only when they grapple with unfamiliar topics. How does the capacity to categorize expand in early childhood?: How does the capacity to categorize expand in early childhood? * By the second half of the first year; children have formed a variety of global categories. * 2 – to 5 – year olds readily draw inferences about non observable characteristics that category members share. * Early preschool years, children's global categories differentiate. They from basic – level – categories. * general categories → basic – level – categories → sub categories. * How does Appearance verse Reality? * Preschoolers show advanced reasoning when presented with familiar situations and simplified problems. * In certain situations, young children are easily tricked by the out ward appearance of things. * How do children master appearance – reality distinctions? Make – believe play may be important. * The more children engage in make – believe in their preschool class rooms, the better they distinguish the apparent identities of objects from their real identities. E- Evaluation of the preoperational stage.: E- Evaluation of the preoperational stage. * Preschoolers have logical understanding suggesting that they attain logical operations gradually. *That logical operations develop gradually poses a serious challenge to Piaget`s stage concept. * Other experts think that the stage concept is still valid but must be modified. * They believe that his strict stage definition must be transformed into a less tightly knit concept . * One in which a related set of competencies develops over an extended time period, depending on brain development and specific experiences. F- Piaget and Education: F- Piaget and Education * Three educational principles derived from his theory continue to have a wide spread influence on teacher training and class room practices: * Discovery learning: In his classroom, children are encouraged to discover for themselves though spontaneous interaction with the environment. * Sensitivity to children's readiness to learn. He believed that appropriate learning experiences build on children's current thinking. * Acceptance of individual differences. His theory assumes that all children go through the same sequence of development but at different rates. VYGOTSKY`S SOCIO CULTURAL THEORY.: VYGOTSKY`S SOCIO CULTURAL THEORY. * Vygotsky`s socio cultural theory stresses the social context of cognitive development. a- Private speech. * Vygotsky objected on what piaget called egocentric speech. * He reasoned that children speak to themselves for self-guidance. * He viewed it as the foundation for all higher cognitive processes. * All studies have supported his perspective, and as a result children's self – directed speech is now called private speech . * Children who use private speech during a challenging activity are more attentive and involved and do better than less talkative agemates . b- social origins of Early childhood cognition. * Where does private speech come from? * Children's learning takes place within a zone of proximal development. * What is a zone of proximal development? It is a range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of others. * What evidence supports vygotsky’s ideas on the social origins of cognitive development? * Parents who are effective scaffolders in teaching their child to solve challenging problems had children who used more private speech and were more successful when asked to do a similar task by themselves. C. Vygotsky and Education: C. Vygotsky and Education * Both Piagetian and Vygotskian classrooms emphasize active participation and acceptance of individual differences. * Yet Vygotskian classroom goes beyond independent discovery It promotes assisted discovery . * Assisted discovery is also helped along by peer collaboration. * Teachers group together classmates of differing abilities and encourage them to teach and help one another. * Vygotsky saw make-believe play as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood. * Pretend play is also rich in private speech that supports its role helping children bring action under the control of thought . d. Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Theory: d. Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Theory * His theory underscores the vital role of teaching. * Verbal communication may not be the only means through which children’s thinking develops. * Vygotsky’s theory says little about how basic motor, perceptual, attention, memory and problem solving contribute to socially transmitted higher cognitive processes. INFORMATION PROCESSING: INFORMATION PROCESSING * Information processing focuses on mental strategies that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental systems. a) Attention : * Preschoolers spend relatively short time involved in tasks and are easily distracted. * Children become better at planning-thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating their attention accordingly to reach a goal. * On simple tasks, preschoolers can generate and follow a plan. * On complex tasks, they rarely decide what to do first and what to do next in on orderly fashion. b. Memory: b. Memory * Preschoolers have the language skills to describe what they remember and they can follow directions on simple memory tasks. * Recognition and recall : * Recall is poorer than recognition. * Preschoolers’ ability to tell if a stimulus is the same as or similar to one they have seen before is remarkably good. * While recall is not good enough that the child fail to generate a mental image of an absent stimuli. * The reason is that young children are less effective at using memory strategies. * Why do young children seldom use memory strategies? They have difficulty holding on to the to-be-learned information and applying a strategy at the same time. What is the difference in recall of list like information and memory for everyday experiences? : What is the difference in recall of list like information and memory for everyday experiences? * In remembering lists, you recall isolated pieces of information. * In remembering everyday experiences, you recall complex . Meaningful events. What is a script?: What is a script? * Preschoolers remember familiar, repeated events in terms of scripts. It is general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation. * Scripts become more elaborate. * Scripts support children’s earliest efforts at planning as they represent sequences of actions that lead to desired goals . Then: Then * As preschoolers’ cognitive and conversational skills improve, their descriptions of special events become better organized, more detailed, and related to the larger context of their lives. C. The young child’s Theory of Mind: C. The young child’s Theory of Mind What is a theory of mind? It is a coherent set of ideas about mental activities, Meta cognition → meta = beyond or higher Cognition = thinking about thought. Are preschools a ware of their mental life?: Are preschools a ware of their mental life? They realize that thinking takes place inside their heads and that a person can think about something without seeing it, talking about it, or touching it. They have only a beginning grasp of the distinction between mental life and behavior. Do Young children realize false beliefs? * At age 4; children figure out that both beliefs and desires determine behavior. * This new under standing comes from games. How do children manage to develop a theory of mind at such a young age? Cognitive and language development, enabling children to reflect on thinking is crucial. - Rich mental-state vocabulary is helpful. - Social experience also promotes understanding of the mind. - Interacting with more mature members of society is helpful. What are the limitation of the young child’s understanding of Mental life?: What are the limitation of the young child’s understanding of Mental life? * They pay little attention to the process of thinking. * They believe that all events must be directly observed to be known. * They don’t understand that mental inferences can be source of knowledge. Preschoolers view the mind as a passive container of information. D. Early childhood literary.: D. Early childhood literary. * Children figure out that letters are parts of words and are linked to sounds in systematic ways. * First children rely heavily on sounds in the name of letters. * Then, they grasp sound-letter correspondences and learn that some letters, have more than one common sound. * Preschoolers from low-SES homes generally have less to books. * Providing low-SES parents with children’s books greatly enhances literary activities in the home. E. What is the basis mathematical Reasoning?: E. What is the basis mathematical Reasoning? * It is built on a foundation of informally acquired knowledge . * 2- 3- year- olds can count. (They repeat number words while vaguely pointing toward objects. * They grasp the vital principle of cardinality . What is cardinality? That the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set. At age 4, children use counting to solve arithmetic problems. * Next, they experiment. * Then they generalize the strategy to subtraction, counting down, or counting up as adding. * These concepts are supports for the wide variety of mathematical skills children will be thought in school. Individual Differences in Mental Development.: Individual Differences in Mental Development. * Intelligence tests don’t sample all human abilities. * Performane is affected by cultural and situational factors. * Test scores are important because they are good predictors of later intelligence and academic achievement. How does Home environment affect Mental Development?: How does Home environment affect Mental Development? * Home lives support intellectual growth. * Preschoolers who develop well intellectually have homes rich in toys and books . * Their parents are warm and affectionate, stimulate language and academic knowledge and arrange outings to places with interesting things to see and do . * These characteristics are less likely to be found in poverty-stricken families. Preschool, Kindergarten, and child care.: Preschool, Kindergarten, and child care . - Preschool is a program with planned educational experiences aimed at enhancing the development of 2-to-5 year- olds . - Child care identifies a variety of arrangements for supervising children of employed parents ranging from care in some one else’s or the child’s own home to some type of center-based program. What are the types of preschool and kindergarten?: What are the types of preschool and kindergarten? 1- Child-centered programs, teachers provide a wide variety of activities from which children select and much learning takes place through play. * Academic programs, teachers structure children’s learning teaching letters, numbers, colors through formal lessons using repetition and drill. What are the ingredients of high-quality child care during the preschool years?: What are the ingredients of high-quality child care during the preschool years? Large-scale studies of center-and home-based settings reveal that the following factors are important. - Group size. - Caregiver Child ratio. - Caregiver educational preparation. - Caregiver commitment to learning about and caring for children. Does television play an important role in young children education?: Does television play an important role in young children education? - Lively visuals - Sound effects stress basic literacy - Number concepts - Engaging puppet - teach general knowledge Human characters - emotional and social understanding - Presocial skills . Does heavy TV viewing take children away from activities that promote cognitive development?: Does heavy TV viewing take children away from activities that promote cognitive development? The more preschool and school age children watch T.V the less time they spend reading and interacting with others, the weaker their academic skills. Language Development : 1- Vocabulary: - Researches have discovered that they can connect a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter, a process called Fast-mapping. - Preschools figure out the meanings of new words by contrasting them with words they already know. - They figure out many word meanings by observing how words are used in the structure of a sentence. - Preschoolers often use social cues to identify word meanings . - They use words creatively to fill in for ones they have not learned. - Preschoolers also extend language meanings through metaphor . 2. Grammar: 2. Grammar * It refers to the way we combine words into meaningful phrases and sentences. * Preschoolers make small additions and changes in words that enable us to express meanings Flexibly. * What is over regularization? * It is when preschoolers over extend the rules to words that are exceptions. They have troubles in forming questions, in passive sentences. They form sentences, tag questions and indirect objects. 3. Conservation: 3. Conservation * Children engage in effective and appropriate communication with others. * The practical, Social side of language is called pragmatics . * In face-to-face interaction, they take turns and respond appropriately. Children adjust their speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of their listeners. * Young children’s conversations appear less mature in highly demanding situations in which they can’t see their listeners’ reactions . How can adults foster preschoolers’ language development?: How can adults foster preschoolers’ language development? 1- Interaction with more skilled speakers. 2- Conversational give-and-take with adults. 3- Sensitive, caring adults use additional techniques that promote early language skills. 4- Don’t overcorrect, especially when children make grammatical mistakes. 5- Adults provide subtle, indirect feed back about grammar by using two strategies. - Expansions: - elaborating on children’s speech increasing its complexity. - Recasts: - Restructuring in accurate speech into correct form. III- EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: III- EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD - The children’s conservation revealed their first notions about morality. - They often combined statements about right and wrong. - The children’s developing understanding of their social world was especially evident in the attention they gave to the dividing line between Male and Female . - Erickson provides an overview of personality change during the preschool years. - We consider children’s concepts of themselves their insights into their social and moral worlds, their gender typing and their increasing ability to manage their emotional and social behaviors. Erickson’s Theory:: Erickson’s Theory: - Erickson described early childhood as a period of (vigorous unfolding) - Initiative suggests that young children have a new sense of purpose fullness. - They are eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities with peers and discover what they can do with help of adults. - The central mass through which young children find out about them selves and their social world is play . - Erickson's theory builds on Freud's psycho sexual stages. - In Freud's well-known Oedipus and Electra conflicts, to avoid punishment and maintain the affection of parents, children from superego, or conscience by identifying with the same – sex parent. - Each time child disobeys standards of conscience, painful feelings of guilt occur. - The negative out come of early childhood is an overly strict super ego that causes children to feel too much guilt because they're threatened, criticized and punished by adults. - Preschool years are a time when children develop a confident self – image, more effective control over their emotions, new social skills, the foundations of morality and a clear sense of themselves as boy or girl. What is self – concept?: What is self – concept? - Language enables them to talk about the I– self (subjective experience of being). - I – self becomes firmly established → children focus on the me- self (knowledge and evaluation of the self’s characteristics) → self concept (set of attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is. - What is self- esteem?: - What is self- esteem? - It is another aspect of self- concept emerges in early child- hood. - The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments. - Self- esteem ranks among the most important aspects of self- development, future behavior, and long-term psychological adjustment. By age 4, preschoolers have several self-esteems Such as - Learning things well in school - Trying hard at challenging tasks. - Making friends - Treating others kindly - They rate their own ability as extremely high and under estimate the difficulty of tasks. - Some Childers give up easily when faced with a challenge. - They are discouraged after failure and conclude that they can’t do the task. Emotional Development: Emotional Development - Their vocabulary for talking about emotion expands rapidly. - By age 4 to 5, children correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions. - They are likely to emphasize external factors over internal states as explanations. - They are also good at predicting what a play mate expressing a certain emotion might do next. - Preschoolers have an impressive ability to interpret, predict, and change others’ feelings. - As preschoolers learn more about emotion from interacting with adults, they engage in more “emotion talk”. - Make-believe contributes to emotional understanding. - The intense nature of the siblings relation ship combined with frequent aching out of feelings, makes an excellent context for learning about emotions. How can a preschooler regulates his emotion?: How can a preschooler regulates his emotion? - By watching adults handle their own feelings, they pick up strategies for regulating emotion. - When parents have difficulty controlling anger and hostility → Children have continuing problems with regulating emotion that seriously interfere with psychological adjustment. When do preschoolers experience self-conscious emotion?: When do preschoolers experience self-conscious emotion? - They are linked to self evaluation. - Parents who repeated give feed back about the worth of the child and her/his performance, have children who experience self-conscious emotions intensely (more shame after failure and more pride after success. - In contrast parents who focus on how to improve performance induce adaptive levels of shame and pride. Shame → feeling of personal inadequacy → withdrawal and depression as well as anger and aggression. Guilt as long as it occurs in appropriate circumstances and shame doesn’t accompany it → good adjustment → child resists harmful impulses → Guilt motivates them to repair the damage. What is Empathy?: What is Empathy? - Empathy is another emotional capacity. - It serves as an important motivator of prosocial or altruistic behavior → actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self. - Children who are sociable and good at regulating emotion are more likely to help, share and comfort others. - Children who are poor emotion regulators less often display sympathetic concern and prosocial behavior. - Parents who are warm and encouraging and show sensitive and sympathetic concern of their preschoolers have children who are likely to react in a concerned way. - Angry parenting disrupts empathy and sympathy. Peer Relations: Peer Relations * The skill at interacting with peers improve rapidly. * With peers, children from friend ships – special relation ships marked by attachment and common interests. Advances in peer sociability:: Advances in peer sociability: * Midred Parten (one of the first to study peer sociability) * Noticed a dramatic rise with age in joint, interactive play. * Concluded that social development proceeds in a three – step sequence. 1- Non social activity: (solitary play) 2- Parallel play: - child plays near other children with similar materials but doesn't try to influence their behavior. 3-1) Associative play:- children engage in separate activities but they exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior. 2) Cooperative play:- children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make – believe theme or building a sand castle. * All these types occur during preschool years. They don't from a developmental sequence in which later – appearing ones replace earlier ones. * The type, rather than the amount, of solitary and parallel play that changes during early childhood. * Parents wonder if preschoolers who spend much time alone is developing normally. * Children of non social activity → cause for concern (function play involving immature) → Haven't learned to regulate their high social fearfulness. * Not all children with low rates are socially anxious → they like to play by them selves → solitary activities are positive and constructive → (mal adjusted) they are bright children who show socially skilled behavior when working with peers. How do cultural beliefs affect early peer associations?: How do cultural beliefs affect early peer associations? Adults who view play as mere entertainment are less likely to provide props than those who value its cognitive and social benefits. What does friend ship mea? It is a mutual relation ship involving companion ship, sharing, under standing, feeling and caring. How do preschoolers under stand friend ship? They under stand something about the uniqueness of friend ship. They know that a friend is “ some one who loves you”. And with whom you spend a lot of time playing . Early childhood friend ships offer social support. Through friendship children seem to integrate themselves into learning environment in ways that foster both academic and social competence. How do parents influence Early peer relations?: How do parents influence Early peer relations? Parents influence children's peer sociability both: 1- Directly through attempts to influence children's peer relations. 2- In directly through their child – rearing practices and play behaviors. Arrange informal peer play activities Direct Influences Provide play opportunities Guide on how to act to wards others. Aim at promoting peer sociability. Indirect Influences Spill over into peer relations. Some children have difficulties with peer relations. Aggressive behavior → children dislike him. How do morals develop?: How do morals develop? By age 2 - They react with distress to act that are aggressive - They use words to evaluate behavior (bad or good) By the end of - They can state a great many moral rules. early childhood (Tell the truth) - They argue over matters of justice. (It's my turn) At first child's morality is externally controlled → it becomes regulated by inner standards. What does Psycho analytic theory stress? : What does Psycho analytic theory stress? - Psycho analytic theory stresses the emotional side of conscience development. (Identification and guilt as motivators of good conduct). - Social learning theory focuses on moral behavior and how it is learned through reinforcement and modeling. - The cognitive-developmental perspective emphasizes thinking. (Children’s ability to reason about justice and fairness). Psychoanalytic Theory : Psychoanalytic Theory * According to Freud, young children from a superego . * Children obey the superego to avoid guilt * Moral development is completed at the end of phallic stage. Researches disagree with Freud’s account of conscience development. Discipline promoting fear of punishment and loss of parental love is assumed to motivate conscience formation and moral behavior. 1* Children whose parents frequently use threats → violate standards + Feel little guilt after harming others. 2* Parent refuses to speak to/states a dislike for the child → high levels of self-blame after misbehavior. 1 + 2 → develop a weak conscience What is induction?: What is induction? It is a special type of discipline which helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of child’s misbehavior on others, supports conscience formation. Its success may lie in its power to motivate children’s active commitment to moral standards. How does it do so?: How does it do so? 1- Induction tells children how to behave 2- Points out the impact of child’s actions on others. 3- Provides children with reasons for changing their behavior. encourage them to adopt to moral standards because they make sense. In contrast Discipline that relies too heavily on threats of punishment or love with drawal makes children so anxious and afraid so they can’t think clearly enough to figure out what they should do. Don’t get children to internalize moral rules. Freud’s theory places a heavy burden on parents; They must ensure disciplinary practices that children develop an internalized conscience. Althrough Good discipline is crucial, children’s characteristics can affect the success of parenting techniques. How much did researches support Freudian ideas?: How much did researches support Freudian ideas? Freud was correct that guilt is am important motivator of moral action Inducing empath-based guilt (expressions of personal responsibility and regret) By explaining how the child’s behavior is harmful. Reactions are associated with: 1- Stopping harmful actions 2- Repairing damage 3- Acting pro socially But Guilt is not the only force that compels us to act morally. Contrary to what Freud believed, moral development is not complete by the end of early childhood. It is a far more gradual process, extending into adulthood. Social learning Theory: Social learning Theory Moral behavior is acquired just like any other set of responses: - Through reinforcement and modeling. The importance of Modeling: - Operant conditioning-following up children’s good behavior with reinforcement in the form of approval, affection and rewards. For a behavior to be reinforced, it must occur spontaneously. Prosocial acts Sharing Helping don't occur often enough at Comforting first for reinforcement Unhappy playmate Children learn to behave morally through modeling . Modeling → observing and imitating people. The following characteristics of models affect children's willingness to imitate. 1- Warmth and responsiveness. 2- Competence and power. 3- Consistency between assertions and behavior. What are the effects of punishment.: What are the effects of punishment. - Parents use forceful methods to get immediate obedience. - They rely on warmth and reasoning to foster long – term goals. - They combine power assertion with reasoning in response to very serious transgressions such as lying and stealing. punishment → only momentary compliance. ↓ depression anti social behavior Poor academic performance Harsh punishment has undeniable effects: 1- Parents spank in response to children's aggression 2- Children who are frequently punished learn to avoid the punishing adult. 3- Punishment works to stop children's misbehavior temporarily. What are the Alternatives to harsh punishment?: What are the Alternatives to harsh punishment? 1- A technique called time out involves removing children from the immediate setting. Child's change behavior Time out Cooling off for angry parents. generate some resentment in children. 2- Withdrawal of privileges Parents aviod harsh technique . How can punishment effectiveness increase? 1- Consistency 2- a warm parent – child retion ship 3- Explanations What is the most effective from of discipline : What is the most effective from of discipline Build a positive relation with child. The positive discipline offer models of appropriate behavior. letting children know a head of time how to act. Preschoolers + cooperative relation ship with parents = Frimer conscience development responsible behavior. The cognitive – developmental perspective.: The cognitive – developmental perspective. * Children are active thinkers about social rules. * at age 3 children have some well – developed ideas about morality. at age 4 children can tell the difference between truthfulness and lying. By end of early childhood; children consider a person's intentions in evaluating lying. PowerPoint Presentation: Preschoolers distinguish moral imperatives Social conventions matters of personal Customs, table of manners choice moral concepts of individual rights How does aggression develop?: How does aggression develop? There are two forms of aggression Instrumental aggression hostile aggression children want an object try to is to hurt get it push, shout at or attack another person person who is in his way. hostile aggression overt aggression relational aggression causes harm damages another’s through physical peer relationships injury Physical aggression → verbal aggression Instrumental aggression declines while hostile aggression out bursts. Factors influncing aggression 1- Sex difference 2- gender typing The family as training Ground for aggressive behavior.: The family as training Ground for aggressive behavior. - Anger → conflict- ridden family atmosphere → out-of-control child. situation 1- Forceful discipline + stressful life experiences Parents threatens, criticizes → child refuses → Parents give up → verbal and physical aggression among preschoolers → antisocial behavior. Parents criticizes verbally Highly aggressive children tend to be 1- rejected by peers 2- Fail in school 3- Violent Television and Aggression: Television and Aggression 1- Children’s cartoons are the most violent programs. 2- They find it hard to separate true- to- life from fantasized television content. 3- TV violence provides children with an extensive “how-to course in aggression” 4- Violent video and computer games have similar effects. 5- Violent Television: 1- modifies children’s attitude toward social reality. 2- manipulate the beliefs and behavior of children Therefore, parents have to regulate their children’s TV exposure. How can we help children and parents control aggression?: How can we help children and parents control aggression? * Treatment of aggression must begin early before it becomes well practiced that it is difficult to change. * Pair commands with reasons * Replace verbal insults with effective punishments * Parents to be warmer and give attention * Parents can get help to solve their problems this will reduce tension and conflict in the household. What is gender typing?: What is gender typing? The process of developing gender roles or gender linked preferences and behaviors valued by the larger society. The same theories that provide account of morality have been used to explain gender-role development. 1 - Social learning → modeling and reinforcement 2- Cognitive-development → active thinkers 3- Gender schema theory → 1 + 2 Gender-stereo typed beliefs and behavior. 1- Preschoolers associate toys, games…. With one sex opposed to the other. 2- Their actions fall in line with their beliefs. boys (active, aggressive….) girls (sensitive, fearful, dependent…) 3- Children’s gender-stereotyped beliefs become stronger, they operate like rules. How do environmental influence Gender typing?: How do environmental influence Gender typing? 1- Family: Parent’s practices influence Gender typing. * Toys different toys for girls + boys * Control the expression of emotion 1- Label emotions when talking to girls 2- Explain emotions noting causes and consequences to boys 3- Preschoolers with older other-sex siblings are less gender-typed (cross-gender play) Boys are clearly more gender-typed. They are more concerned if a boy acts like a sissy than if a girl acts like a Tomboy . 2- Teachers: actions and behaviors in the classroom. 3- Peers: Same-sex peers positively reinforce one another for gender-typed play. 4- The broader social environment. What is gender identity?: What is gender identity? * An image of one self as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics. * Researchers can measure gender identify by asking them to rate themselves on personality traits. Masculine identify scores high on masculine items scores low on feminine items Feminine identity does just the reverse. Emergence of Gender identity.: Emergence of Gender identity. According to social learning theory behavior comes before self-perceptions. Modeling → gender typed Reponses→ organize these behaviors + reinforcement → gender-linked idea. Acc to cognitive-development theory; self perceptions → behavior. Children first acquire a cognitive appreciations of performanence of their sex. What is gender constancy? The under standing that sex is biologically based and remains the same even if clothing, hair style and play activity changes. Gender schema Theory : Is an information-processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive-development. Children pick up Gender-typed preferences and behaviors + start to organize their experiences into gender schemas. How can help young children avoid developing rigid gender schemas?: How can help young children avoid developing rigid gender schemas? 1- Adults can eliminate gender stereo typing from their own behavior. 2- Teachers can make sure that all children spend time in both adult-structured and unstructured activities. 3-keep away Children from TV and other media presentations that portray rigid gender differences. Child Rearing and Emotional and social Development.: Child Rearing and Emotional and social Development . What are child-rearing styles? They are combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate. What are the three features that differentiate an authoritative style from less effective styles. 1- Acceptance and involvement. 2- Control. 3- Autonomy granting. a. AUTHORITATIVE CHILD READING: a. AUTHORITATIVE CHILD READING It involves: - high acceptance - involvement - adaptive control techniques - appropriate autonomy granting 1- Authoritative parents are: - warm - attentive - sensitive - close to child 2- At the same time they exercise firm, reasonable control. 3- They engage in gradual, appropriate autonomy granting (allow children to make decisions in areas where he is ready to mate choices) b. Authoritarian child rearing: b. Authoritarian child rearing Parents: - are low in acceptance and involvement. - in coercive control, low in autonomy granting. - appear cold and rejecting - to exert control, they yell, command, criticize - Use force and punishment - make decisions for their child Children: - are anxious and unhappy - React with hostilitly when frustrated Boys ___ high rates of anger Girls ___ dependent, lacking in exploration. c. Permissive child rearing is warm and accepting: c. Permissive child rearing is warm and accepting Parents - engage in little control of their child’s behavior. - They allow children to make many. Children - can eat meals or to bed when they feel like it. - Watch TV as much as they want. - Don’t have to learn manners or do any house hold chores. - Are impulsive, disobedient and rebellious, over demanding. d. The uninvolved parenting Combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to autonomy granting. Parents : - are emotionally detached - depressed - overwhelmed by life stress. Children - neglected → maltreatment Child Maltreatment takes the following forms:: Child Maltreatment takes the following forms: Physical abuse: assaults on children that produce pain (cuts, welts, burns…) Sexual abuse: Sexual comments Neglect: Don’t receive enough food, clothing. Psychological abuse: Failure to meet children’s needs for affection (terrorizing, ridicule). Origins of child maltreatment:: Origins of child maltreatment: a) Family : Parents - Suffer from biased thinking - Don’t have enough self control To respond to their child’s misbehavior. - high emotional arousal when they react to stressful situations. b) Community : abusive parents are neglected from society social isolation has at least two causes: 1- because of their own life histories 2- are more likely to live in unstable run-down neighbor hoods. c) The larger culture Parents feel over burdened by the effects of values, laws, customs. Consequences : Consequences 1- Children show serious learning and adjustment problems 2- depression 3- aggressive behavior 4- peer difficulties 5- substance abuse 6- low academic achievement 7- low self esteem 8- high axiexly How to prevent child Maltreatment. 1- Teach high-risk parents effective child rearing 2- high school child development courses 3- broad social programs 4- social supports to families 5- offer self-help group meetings 6- regular home visits When parents are unlikely to change their behavior, they separate parent from child and legal terminate parental rights.