Anatomy & Physiology

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Anatomy & Physiology

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Anatomy & Physiology : 

Anatomy & Physiology

Slide 2: 

Anatomy is the scientific term for the study of the Human Body. Physiology is the term for the study of how the body functions. They are closely related as form and function are intertwined.

The Eleven Body Systems : 

The Eleven Body Systems

Protection, Support & Movement : 

Protection, Support & Movement The Integumentary System: Its Form: The skin and its associated structures makeup this system. It’s structures include nails, hair, sweat and oil glands. Its Functions: Protection from infection, dehydration, regulation of body temperature and sensory collection. Sensory impulses from the skin make it possible to adapt to the environment.

Slide 5: 

Structures Of The Skin: The Epidermis is the Outermost Layer of the Skin. The Dermis Rests on the Subcutaneous Layer. The 2 Layers of Skin are Called the Dermis and Epidermis. Accessory Structures of The Skin: Oil Glands Sweat Glands Hair Nails

Protection, Support & Movement : 

Protection, Support & Movement The Skeletal System: Its Form: A basic framework of the body is a system of 206 bones and joints. Its Functions: To serve as a firm framework for the entire body and protect its internal organs. Produces movement along with muscles and storehouse for calcium salts and blood cell production.

Slide 7: 

Bones Joints Connective Tissues The structure of the skeletal system includes what of the following 3 components:

Protection, Support & Movement : 

Protection, Support & Movement The Muscular System: Its Form: The Skeletal Muscles in this system are attached to bones; But there are also 2 other types; One of which is called Smooth Muscles & they are present in the walls of body organs; The other is called the Cardiac Muscle and it makes up the wall of the heart. Its Functions: Movement of the Skeleton, Maintenance of posture and generation of heat.

Protection, Support & Movement : 

Protection, Support & Movement The Skeletal Muscle: Works with the skeleton for movement of the body and is described as voluntary because it can be made to move with conscious thought. The Cardiac Muscle: Forms the bulk of the heart wall and is also known as the myocardium produces the regular contractions known as the heart beat. It is described as involuntary because it is independent of thought. The Smooth Muscles: Also involuntary with muscle contractions and forms the walls of hollow organs including stomach, intestines, gallbladder & urinary bladder.

Coordination and Control : 

Coordination and Control The Nervous System: Its Form: A complex system by which the body is controlled; It includes the brain, the spinal cord and the nerves of the body. It also includes the Special Sense Organs that are as follows: The ears, eyes, taste buds, organs of smell and receptors for touch and or pain. (See, Hear, Smell, Taste & Feel) Its Function: Control & Coordinate all systems of the body. Conditions Both Within and Outside of the Body are Constantly Changing and The Nervous System Detects these Changes so it can Adapt.

Anatomic Divisions of The Nervous System : 

Anatomic Divisions of The Nervous System The Central Nervous System or CNS Includes the Brain & Spinal Cord. The Peripheral Nervous System Includes the Nerves Outside the PNS that carry the Impulses to and from the Brain & Spinal Cord & are Message Carriers.

The Eye & The Ear….. : 

The Eye & The Ear….. Protective Structures of the Eye Include: Skull Bone Eyelid Eyelash & Eyebrow Tears The Ear is the Sense Organ for Both Hearing & Equilibrium or Balance; Divided into 3 Main Sections: Outer Ear, Middle Ear & Inner Ear. The Eustachian Tube allows pressure to equalize on the two sides of the tympanic membrane in the ear.

Coordination and Control : 

Coordination and Control The Endocrine System: Its Form: Scattered Organs known as the Endocrine Glands & are grouped together as the share similar functions. Examples are as follows: Thyroid, Pituitary & Adrenal Glands. Its Function: Hormone Production also known as Chemical Messengers. The Endocrine System & Nervous System work to control and coordinate all other systems. One by means of Electrical stimuli and the other is thru chemical stimuli.

Circulation : 

Circulation The Cardiovascular System: Its Form: The Heart and Blood Vessels Its Function: The prime mover of blood throughout the body and bringing with it nutrients & oxygen. The system then carries away waste materials for elimination.

Structures of the Heart : 

Structures of the Heart The Endocardium: The Innermost Layer of the Heart Wall. The Myocardium: The Middle Layer of the Heart Wall – Also Called Cardiac Muscle. The Epicardium: The Outermost Layer of the Heart Wall. The Pericardium: The Sac that encloses the heart

Circulation : 

Circulation The Lymphatic System: Its Form: It is widespread system of tissues scattered throughout the body and includes; Tonsils, Thymus and Spleen. Its Function: Fluid Balance, Protection from Infection and Absorption of Fat.

Nutrition & Fluid Balance : 

Nutrition & Fluid Balance The Respiratory System: Its Form: Includes the passageway to and from the lungs. Its Function: Purpose is to Internal & External Exchange of Gases (O2 & CO2); Pulmonary Ventilation or Exchange of Air.

Nutrition & Fluid Balance : 

Nutrition & Fluid Balance The Digestive System: Its Form: Its System includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver and pancreas. Its Function: Its system involves the breaking down, absorption & conversion of food to nutrients; and the final elimination of solid waste products after conversion.

Nutrition & Fluid Balance : 

Nutrition & Fluid Balance The Structure of the Wall in the Digestive Tract Includes 4 Layers: Mucous Membrane Submucosa Serous Membrane Smooth Muscle

The Urinary System : 

The Urinary System The Form: Two Kidneys, Two Ureters, Bladder & a Urethra. The Main Functions: Removal of Metabolic Waste Products from the Blood.

Metabolism : 

Metabolism Nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract fall into 2 categories: Catabolism: Digestion of food and release of the energy within the cells. Anabolism: For growth and repair of tissues. The series of cellular reactions that release energy from nutrients is called Cellular Respiration.

Reproductive System : 

Reproductive System The Form: Includes all organs for reproducing offspring The Function: Fertilization, Pregnancy & Reproduction of Offspring. The Process of Cell Division to Produce A Gamete; Gamete which has 23 Chromosomes ( Sperm or Ova ).