PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION: PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION MARIA LISETTE C. ERMINO, R. N. TOPICS:: TOPICS: TEAM – ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION COMPUTER – ASSISTED COOPERATIVE LEARNING GAMES TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI): TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI) Also called Team Accelerated Instruction a cooperative learning technique developed at Johns Hopkins University by a team led by Robert Slavin and Nancy Madden was specifically designed to teach math to students in grades 3 through 6 or to teach older students who are not ready for algebra TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI): TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI) Children are split into teams of four or five with a mix of ability. After a teacher has taught a lesson, team mates help each other complete exercises. Children are given exercises at a level determined by their score in an initial test. Students are then tested individually. Teams earn recognition by way of weekly awards for their overall performance. TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI):
TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI) TAI is cited as a "top rated" program, for elementary maths, by the Best Evidence Encyclopaedia. Two large randomized studies have demonstrated its success for
mathematic computations (with a modest effect size of 0.29).
TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI): TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI) In all studies, except one about high-achieving students, TAI groups were significantly more likely to have higher math achievement scores than control groups. Also, TAI groups were more likely to enjoy math class, and were less likely to have behavior problems than the control group. TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI): TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI) These students are engaged in shared instructional activities and develop friendships. Students with disabilities are rejected less often by peers and have fewer behavioral problems than when they were placed in self-contained special education classrooms (Johnson & Johnson, 1994). COMPUTER – ASSISTED COOPERATIVE LEARNING: COMPUTER – ASSISTED COOPERATIVE LEARNING Computer - assisted instruction (CAI), has been identified as a promising way to adapt instruction to individual differences (Corno & Snow, 1986) CAI PROVIDES:: CAI PROVIDES: individualized instruction permitting learners to monitor their speed on a moment-by-moment basis immediate feedback through which learners can monitor their response accuracy on each question on the screen immediate reinforcement to motivate continuing on-task behavior. Further, CAI allows for individual differences in abilities and rate of learning. COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI): COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) the presentation of problems is tailored according to the learner's answers and immediate feedback for each response is supplied on the screen CAI joined with cooperative learning instruction shows that pairs or small groups of students working together often results in improved learning outcomes in regular classroom environments (Light & Blaye, 1990). COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION: COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION Both high and low achievers could benefit from a cooperative social context to enhance their individual accountability and attentiveness (Mevarech, 1993). TOTOO BA ITO?: TOTOO BA ITO? GAMES: GAMES An activity in which participants followed prescribed roles that differ from those of real life as they strive to attain a challenging goal Attaining the goal usually entails competition GAMES: GAMES Individual against individual as in chess GAMES: GAMES Group against group as in basketball GAMES: GAMES Individual against a standard as in golf (with “par” as the standard GAMES: GAMES With video games, players are typically are competing against their own previous scores and ultimately against the designer of the game as they approach mastery. ADVANTAGES OF GAMES: ADVANTAGES OF GAMES ATTRACTIVE. Games provide attractive frameworks for learning activities. They are attractive because they are fun. Children and adults alike tend to react positively to an invitation to play. ADVANTAGES OF GAMES: ADVANTAGES OF GAMES NOVEL. Games arouse interest because of their novelty. ADVANTAGES OF GAMES: ADVANTAGES OF GAMES ATMOSPHERE. The pleasant, relaxed atmosphere fostered by games can be especially helpful those (such as low achievers) who avoid other types of structured learning activities. ADVANTAGES OF GAMES: ADVANTAGES OF GAMES TIME ON TASK. Games can keep learners interested in repetitious tasks, such as memorizing multiplication tables. What would be otherwise tedious drills become fun. LIMITATIONS OF GAMES: LIMITATIONS OF GAMES COMPETITION. Competitive activities can be counter productive for students who are less adept at competing or who are weak in the content or skill being practiced. LIMITATION OF GAMES: LIMITATION OF GAMES DISTRACTION. Without careful management and debriefing, students can get caught up in the excitement of play and fail to focus on the real objectives. LIMITATION OF GAMES: LIMITATION OF GAMES POOR DESIGN. To be instructionally meaningful the game activity must provide actual practice of the intended academic skill. FRAME GAMES: FRAME GAMES Tic Tac Toe (also known as Noughts and Cross) is a simple and fun game that can be played almost anywhere. The first player to have 3 of their symbols in a row, whether it is horizontally, vertically, or diagonally, is the winner. TIC TAC TOE: TIC TAC TOE TO AVOID THIS:: TO AVOID THIS: Play spelling rummy. SPELLING RUMMY IS…: SPELLING RUMMY IS… the fun educational card game that teaches Greek and Latin roots that form the English language. Rummy English vocabulary card game has been enjoyed by school teachers, parents and kids ages 8 - adult Spelling rummy improves:: Spelling rummy improves: English vocabulary and reading comprehension Spelling Skills S.A.T. scores Dictionary skills and Alphabetizing skills Retention using a fun, multi-sensory learning format that kids and adults enjoy WE ALSO USE:: WE ALSO USE: WORD BINGO: WORD BINGO