CH407H project 05 adam aron Hybrid Cars


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Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? :

Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? Aron Geelan Adam Kirkpatrick


Introduction Definitions Electric vs. Internal Combustion Timeline for Hybrid technology development The Batteries Study: Insight vs. Prius The Future


Definitions Combustion vs. Electric ( ) Parallel vs. Series Hybrid ( ) Honda Insight Toyota Prius Full Hybrid Mild Hybrid Stop/Start Hybrid Integrated Starter Alternator with Damping (ISAD) Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Plug-in Hybrid

Electric Motor:

Electric Motor Lots of torque Zero emissions Tax breaks No transmission needed Starts more efficiently Can turn off motor when you stop


Gasoline Higher energy density than batteries 1,000 pounds of batteries = 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas Cheaper initial cost for car Hybrids are $3500-5000 more Reliable, more history

Cost Per Mile Electric vs. Gas:

Cost Per Mile Electric vs. Gas


Timeline 1839: First electric vehicle 1886: Electric powered taxicab in England 1890-1910: Significant improvements in battery technology (lead-acid, nickel-iron) 1898: Ferdinand Porsche built a hybrid


Timeline 1900: Pieper introduced hybrid 1905: Gas-Electric car 1970’s: Arab oil embargo; hybrid VW Taxi 1979: hybrid car built with lawnmower engine 1991: US Advanced Battery Consortium launched major program to produce “super” battery


Timeline 1997: Toyota Prius available in Japan 1999: Honda Insight released in US (70 mpg) 2000: Toyota Prius available in US 2002: Honda Civic Hybrid introduced 2004: Toyota Prius II introduced; Ford Escape Hybrid introduced

The Batteries Behind It All:

The Batteries Behind It All Early Prius and Insight NiMH D Cells Stick Arrangement ( )

Prismatic Ni-MH:

Prismatic Ni-MH 15% pack volume reduction 25% pack weight reduction Less battery module per pack number

Metal Case Prismatic Ni-MH:

Metal Case Prismatic Ni-MH Improvement 14% less volume 40% higher cooling ( )


ECU Electronic Control Unit Regulates temperature and state of charge Ensures safe and reliable driving

Study: Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of Prius and Insight:

Study: Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of Prius and Insight Honda Insight vs. Toyota Prius

Charge, Discharge and SOC:

Charge, Discharge and SOC

Battery Energy and Battery Temperatures:

Battery Energy and Battery Temperatures

Hybrid Cars Today:

Hybrid Cars Today Table 1. Light-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles OEM Model Body Style Power Type Fuel Date Introduced/Announced Production Date Currently in Production DaimlerChrysler Ram Pickup Contractor Special Truck Mild Hybrid Diesel Nov-00 2004 (Limited) Ford Escape SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-01 2004 General Motors Silverado/Sierra Truck Mild Hybrid Gasoline Jan-01 2004 (Limited) Honda Accord Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-04 2005 Honda Insight Coupe IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Dec-99 2000 Honda Civic Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-00 2002 Lexus RX400h SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2005 Toyota Prius Sedan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-00 2000 Toyota Highlander SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-04 2005 Suzuki Twin Mini Hybrid Gasoline Nov-02 2003 (Japan) Toyota Estima Minivan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-01 In Japan Only Toyota Crown Sedan Mild Hybrid Gasoline Aug-01 In Japan Only Toyota Alphard Minivan Hybrid Gasoline Jul-03 In Japan Only Planned for Production Ford Fusion Sedan Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-03 2006 General Motors Silverado/Sierra & Tahoe/Yukon Truck & SUV Strong Hybrid Gasoline Nov-03 2007 General Motors Equinox SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2006 General Motors Malibu Sedan BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2007 General Motors Graphyte SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Jan-05 2006 Hyundai Click Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Nov-03 2005/06 (Korea) Mercury Mariner SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-04 2005 (limited) 2006 (full) Nissan Altima Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Jun-04 2006 Saturn Vue SUV BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2006 Toyota Camry Sedan Unknown Gasoline Unknown Unknown Toyota Sienna Minivan Hybrid Gasoline 2003 2007 Recent Concepts - Production Plans Unknown Honda ASM Minivan IMA1 hybrid Gasoline Oct-03 Unknown Ford Focus C-MAX Sedan Hydrogen ICE Hydrogen Jul-04 Unknown Daewoo S3X SUV Unknown Unknown Oct-04 Unknown Opal Astra Sedan Unknown Diesel Jan-04 Unknown Mercury Meta One Unknown Hybrid Diesel Jan-04 Unknown Mercury Milan Unknown Unknown Unknown Jan-04 Unknown 1 Integrated motor assist. 2 Belt alternator starter. (Source: Collected by Robb Barnitt and Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, from various sources) Table from

Future of Hybrid:

Future of Hybrid Hybrid buses ~1,000 in use Seattle California Tax Break Increase

PowerPoint Presentation:

Future of Hybrid Cars Toyota Volta 3.3 liter V6 gas engine Toyota Hybrid Sports Car 408 horsepower 30 miles per gallon


Summary Definitions Electric vs. Internal Combustion Timeline for Hybrid technology development The Batteries Study: Insight vs. Prius The Future

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