CH407H project 05 adam aron Hybrid Cars

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Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? :

Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? Aron Geelan Adam Kirkpatrick

Introduction:

Introduction Definitions Electric vs. Internal Combustion Timeline for Hybrid technology development The Batteries Study: Insight vs. Prius The Future

Definitions:

Definitions Combustion vs. Electric ( http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm ) Parallel vs. Series Hybrid ( http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm ) Honda Insight Toyota Prius Full Hybrid Mild Hybrid Stop/Start Hybrid Integrated Starter Alternator with Damping (ISAD) Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Plug-in Hybrid

Electric Motor:

Electric Motor Lots of torque Zero emissions Tax breaks No transmission needed Starts more efficiently Can turn off motor when you stop

Gasoline:

Gasoline Higher energy density than batteries 1,000 pounds of batteries = 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas Cheaper initial cost for car Hybrids are $3500-5000 more Reliable, more history

Cost Per Mile Electric vs. Gas:

Cost Per Mile Electric vs. Gas

Timeline:

Timeline 1839: First electric vehicle 1886: Electric powered taxicab in England 1890-1910: Significant improvements in battery technology (lead-acid, nickel-iron) 1898: Ferdinand Porsche built a hybrid

Timeline:

Timeline 1900: Pieper introduced hybrid 1905: Gas-Electric car 1970’s: Arab oil embargo; hybrid VW Taxi 1979: hybrid car built with lawnmower engine 1991: US Advanced Battery Consortium launched major program to produce “super” battery

Timeline:

Timeline 1997: Toyota Prius available in Japan 1999: Honda Insight released in US (70 mpg) 2000: Toyota Prius available in US 2002: Honda Civic Hybrid introduced 2004: Toyota Prius II introduced; Ford Escape Hybrid introduced

The Batteries Behind It All:

The Batteries Behind It All Early Prius and Insight NiMH D Cells Stick Arrangement ( http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_maru.html )

Prismatic Ni-MH:

Prismatic Ni-MH 15% pack volume reduction 25% pack weight reduction Less battery module per pack number http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kaku.html

Metal Case Prismatic Ni-MH:

Metal Case Prismatic Ni-MH Improvement 14% less volume 40% higher cooling ( http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kinnzoku.html )

ECU:

ECU Electronic Control Unit Regulates temperature and state of charge Ensures safe and reliable driving http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_bms.html

Study: Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of Prius and Insight:

Study: Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of Prius and Insight Honda Insight vs. Toyota Prius

Charge, Discharge and SOC:

Charge, Discharge and SOC http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/31306.pdf

Battery Energy and Battery Temperatures:

Battery Energy and Battery Temperatures

Hybrid Cars Today:

Hybrid Cars Today Table 1. Light-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles OEM Model Body Style Power Type Fuel Date Introduced/Announced Production Date Currently in Production DaimlerChrysler Ram Pickup Contractor Special Truck Mild Hybrid Diesel Nov-00 2004 (Limited) Ford Escape SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-01 2004 General Motors Silverado/Sierra Truck Mild Hybrid Gasoline Jan-01 2004 (Limited) Honda Accord Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-04 2005 Honda Insight Coupe IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Dec-99 2000 Honda Civic Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-00 2002 Lexus RX400h SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2005 Toyota Prius Sedan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-00 2000 Toyota Highlander SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-04 2005 Suzuki Twin Mini Hybrid Gasoline Nov-02 2003 (Japan) Toyota Estima Minivan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-01 In Japan Only Toyota Crown Sedan Mild Hybrid Gasoline Aug-01 In Japan Only Toyota Alphard Minivan Hybrid Gasoline Jul-03 In Japan Only Planned for Production Ford Fusion Sedan Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-03 2006 General Motors Silverado/Sierra & Tahoe/Yukon Truck & SUV Strong Hybrid Gasoline Nov-03 2007 General Motors Equinox SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2006 General Motors Malibu Sedan BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2007 General Motors Graphyte SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Jan-05 2006 Hyundai Click Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Nov-03 2005/06 (Korea) Mercury Mariner SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-04 2005 (limited) 2006 (full) Nissan Altima Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Jun-04 2006 Saturn Vue SUV BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2006 Toyota Camry Sedan Unknown Gasoline Unknown Unknown Toyota Sienna Minivan Hybrid Gasoline 2003 2007 Recent Concepts - Production Plans Unknown Honda ASM Minivan IMA1 hybrid Gasoline Oct-03 Unknown Ford Focus C-MAX Sedan Hydrogen ICE Hydrogen Jul-04 Unknown Daewoo S3X SUV Unknown Unknown Oct-04 Unknown Opal Astra Sedan Unknown Diesel Jan-04 Unknown Mercury Meta One Unknown Hybrid Diesel Jan-04 Unknown Mercury Milan Unknown Unknown Unknown Jan-04 Unknown 1 Integrated motor assist. 2 Belt alternator starter. (Source: Collected by Robb Barnitt and Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, from various sources) Table from http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/37777.pdf

Future of Hybrid:

Future of Hybrid Hybrid buses ~1,000 in use Seattle California Tax Break Increase

PowerPoint Presentation:

Future of Hybrid Cars Toyota Volta 3.3 liter V6 gas engine Toyota Hybrid Sports Car 408 horsepower 30 miles per gallon

Summary:

Summary Definitions Electric vs. Internal Combustion Timeline for Hybrid technology development The Batteries Study: Insight vs. Prius The Future

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