ABG's Review

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Acid-Base Imbalances:

A cidosis : respiratory and metabolic A lkalosis : respiratory and metabolic Acid-Base Imbalances

Acid-Base Imbalances:

Respiratory acidosis Arises from alveolar hypoventilation ( AZZidic ) Lungs unable to excrete enough CO 2 Excess carbonic acid in the blood decreases pH (acidic) Respiratory alkalosis Arises from alveolar hyperventilation (anxiety attack) Lungs excrete too much CO 2 Deficit of carbonic acid in the blood increases pH (basic) Acid-Base Imbalances

Acid-Base Imbalances (cont’d):

Metabolic acidosis Arises from increase in metabolic acid or decrease in base, stored in GI tract (bicarbonate) (too much diarrhea out your Assidosis ) Kidneys unable to excrete enough metabolic acids, which accumulate in the blood Results in decreased level of consciousness Metabolic alkalosis Arises from direct increase in base (bicarbonate) or decrease in metabolic acid (stomach acid/vomit) Results in increased blood bicarbonate ( Alk ) Acid-Base Imbalances (cont’d)

Acid-Base Imbalances (cont’d):

Kidney or lung cannot compensate for itself. Kidneys compensate for respiratory imbalances. Respiratory system compensates for metabolic imbalances. These compensatory mechanisms do not correct the problem, but they assist the body in adapting. However, if the underlying condition is not corrected, these compensatory mechanisms will fail. Acid-Base Imbalances (cont’d)

Arterial Blood Gases:

Measurement of arterial oxygenation and carbon dioxide levels. Used to assess the adequacy of alveolar ventilation and the ability of the lungs to provide oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. Also assesses acid base balance Arterial Blood Gases


pH= 7.35 to 7.45 CO2=35 to 45 HCO3= 22 to 26 ABG’S


CO2 > than 45 is acidotic HCO3< 22 is acidotic CO2 < 35 alkalotic HCO3 > 26 is alkalotic ABGs

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3Xba-ssVZI :

http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3Xba-ssVZI

PowerPoint Presentation:

pH PCO 2 HCO 3 7.35 7.45 35 45 22 26


Is it normal ? Is the pH acidotic or alkalotic Is the cause respiratory or metabolic Compare the pH to the HCO3 and CO2 If pH is acidic, look for the other value (HCO3/CO2) that is also acidic If pH matches with Co2 the cause is respiratory, If pH matches HCo3 the cause is metabolic Interpretation

More simply put…:

Metabolic Alkalosis: if pH is alkalotic and the HCO3 is alkalotic Respiratory Alkalosis: if pH is alkalotic and the CO2 is alkalotic Metabolic Acidosis: if pH is acidotic and the HCO3 is acidotic Respiratory Acidosis: if pH is acidotic and the CO2 is acidotic More simply put…

Try it:

ABG pH=7.33 PCO2=50 HCO3=24 Try it Respiratory Acidosis ABG pH=7.55 PCO2=36 HCO3=28 Metabolic Alkalosis

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