Conditional Sentences

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Conditional Sentences:

Conditional Sentences G

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 used when describing situations which have automatic or habitual results ( general truths ). The probability of the result is  100% Zero Conditional

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EXAMPLES: If you heat ice, it melts. If there is a shortage of any product, prices of that product go up. My parents get angry if I come home late. Zero Conditional

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The Zero Conditional is often used to give instructions: EXAMPLES: Press the button if you want a receipt. If you want to leave a message, speak after the tone. Zero Conditional

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  used to talk about a future situation that is possible. EXAMPLES: If you try very hard, you'll see the difference. John will be late, if you don't lend him your car. First Conditional

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  Possible variations of the basic form: a) if  + present + may/might (possibility) Ex: If the climate keeps warming, the Arctic might be warm enough for swimming. First Conditional

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b) if + present + may  (permission)  or can  (permission or ability) Ex: If your documents are in order, you may/can leave at once. (permission) If it stops raining, we can go out." (permission or ability) First Conditional

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c.) if + present + must, should or any expression of command, request or advice Ex: If you want to look slim, you  must/should  eat less meat. If you want to look slim, eat less meat. First Conditional

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Variations of the if-clause: Instead of  if  + present tense, we can have: a) if + present continuous, to indicate a present actions or a future arrangement.“ Ex: If you are waiting for a bus (present action), you'd better join the queue. If you're staying for another night (future arrangement), I'll ask the manager to give you a better room. First Conditional

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Variations of the if-clause: Instead of  if  + present tense, we can have: b) if + present perfect Ex: if you have finished dinner, I'll ask the waiter for the bill. If has written the letter, I'll post it. If they haven't seen the museum, we'd better go there today. First Conditional

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used to talk about a future situation that is unlikely to happen and to give advice. Second Conditional

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The verb in the  if -clause is in the past tense; the verb in the main clause is in the conditional tense: Ex: If someone stole my bag, I would immediately contact the police. If I had money, I would bid on this auction. Second Conditional

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USE 1. When the supposition is contrary to known facts Ex: "If I lived in New York, I wouldn't have to commute there each day.“ "If I were you, I would plant some trees in your garden." Second Conditional

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USE 2. When we don't expect the action in the if-clause to happen: Ex: "If I saw a zombie, I would run as fast as I could.“ "If I bought a car like this, everyone would admire me." Second Conditional

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Possible variations of the basic form Variations of the main clause  might or could  may be used instead of  would: Ex: If you tried again, you would succeed. (certain result) If you tried again, you might succeed. (possible result) If I knew her number, I could ring her up. (ability) If he had a permit, he could get a job. (ability or permission) Second Conditional

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Important thing to remember: a) The verb in the if-clause is in the past perfect tense b) The verb in the main clause is in the perfect conditional.  c) The time is past and the condition cannot be fulfilled because the action in the if-clause didn't happen. Third Conditional

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Example: If I had known that you were coming, I would have met you at the railway station. If he had tried to leave the country, he would have been stopped at the frontier.  Third Conditional Cannot be fulfilled Did’nt happen Did’nt happen Cannot be fulfilled

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Possible variations of the basic form: 1 .  could  or  might  may be used instead of would: Ex: If the rescue crew had found him earlier, they could have saved his life. ( ability ) If the rescue crew had found him earlier, they might have saved his life. ( possibility ) If we had the necessary documents, we could have left at once. ( ability or permission ) Third Conditional

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2. The continuous form of the perfect conditional may be used: Ex: If I'd had any money I'd have been watching the film with my girlfriend that evening. 3. We can use the past perfect continuous in the if-clause: Ex:   I wasn't wearing a seat belt. If I had been wearing one, I wouldn't have been seriously injured. Third Conditional

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4. "had" can be placed first and the "if" omitted: Ex: Instead of: If you had obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened. we can say: Had you told me about your problems,  this disaster would not have happened. Third Conditional

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Mixed conditionals are those unreal conditional sentences whose time in the if-clause is different than the time in the main-clause. Ex: If she  were  shorter, she  would  be more attractive. I am busy next week. If I  had  time, I  would come  to your party. If they  hadn't  trained hard, they  wouldn't  have won. Mixed Conditional

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Past and Present If my father hadn't lost his keys, we wouldn't have to wait until he finds them. But my father lost his keys and therefore we have to wait until he finds them. If I had installed an antivirus, my computer would be so slow now. But I didn't install an antivirus and therefore my computer is so slow now. If our house had been broken into, we would be very sad. But our house wasn't broken into and we aren't sad. Mixed Conditional

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Past and Future If our house had been broken into, we would call police. But our house wasn't broken into and we are not going to call police. If we had won the lottery last week, we would buy a new sofa today. But we didn't win the lottery and we are not going to buy a new sofa today. Mixed Conditional

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Past and Future If our house had been broken into, we would call police. But our house wasn't broken into and we are not going to call police. If we had won the lottery last week, we would buy a new sofa today. But we didn't win the lottery and we are not going to buy a new sofa today. Mixed Conditional

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Present and Past If I  were  smarter, I  would have  graduated from Stanford. But I am not smarter and therefore I didn't graduate from Stanford. If Mary  weren't  a snob, she  wouldn't have  had so many parties this year. But Mary is a snob and therefore she had so many parties this year. Mixed Conditional

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Present and Future If you  were  more eloquent, you  would  become a politician. But I am not more eloquent and I won't become a politician. If you  had  more time, I  would  go to the cinema with you. But you don't have more time and I won't go to the cinema with you. Mixed Conditional

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